Ecosystem based fisheries
Kishor K.T., Narasimha Moger., Pradeepkumar
N.,Chandrashekar B. H., Rajeish Moger., Harshavardhan Joshi.,
KVAFSU, College of Fisheries, Mangalore, Karnataka,
Corresponding author: email@example.com
Today the fishing
industry points to pollution
and global warming as the causes of unprecedented low fish stocks in
recent years, writing, "Everybody would like to see the
rebuilding of fish stocks and this can only be achieved if we
understand all of the influences, human and natural, on fish
fishing has also had an effect.
Frid adds, "Fish communities can be altered in a number of ways,
for example they can decrease if particular sized individuals of a
species are targeted, as this affects predator
and prey dynamics. Fishing,
however, is not the sole perpetrator of changes to marine life -
is another example. No one factor operates in isolation and
components of the ecosystem respond differently to each individual
factor." In contrast to the traditional approach of focusing on
a single species, the ecosystem-based
approach is organized in terms
fishery concepts have been implemented in some regions.
In 2007 a group of scientists offered the
following Ten Commandments
Keep a perspective that is holistic, risk-adverse and adaptive.
Maintain an "old growth" structure in fish populations, since
big, old and fat female fish have been shown to be the best
spawners, but are also susceptible to overfishing.
Characterize and maintain the natural spatial structure of fish
stocks, so that management boundaries match natural boundaries in
Monitor and maintain seafloor habitats to make sure fish have food
Maintain resilient ecosystems that are able to withstand occasional
Identify and maintain critical food-web connections, including
predators and forage species.
Adapt to ecosystem changes through time, both short-term and on
longer cycles of decades or centuries, including global climate
Account for evolutionary changes caused by fishing, which tends to
remove large, older fish.
Include the actions of humans and their social and economic systems
in all ecological equations
is an environmental management approach that recognizes the full
array of interactions within an ecosystem, including humans, rather
than considering single issues, species, or ecosystem services in
isolation (Christensen et al. 1996, McLeod et al. 2005).Terrestrial
ecosystem-based management (often referred to as ecosystem
management) came into its own during the conflicts over endangered
species protection (particularly the northern spotted owl), land
conservation, and water, grazing and timber rights in the western
United States in the 1980s and 1990s (Yaffee 1999).
Interest in ecosystem-based management in the marine realm has
developed more recently, in response to increasing recognition of the
declining state of fisheries and ocean ecosystems (POC 2003, USCOP
2004, and Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005).As described in
McLeod and Leslie (2009),
elements of marine ecosystem-based management (EBM) include:
1. Connections: At its core, EBM is about acknowledging
connections, including the linkages between marine ecosystems and
human societies, economies and institutional systems, as well as
those among various species within an ecosystem and among ocean
places that are linked by the movement of species, materials, and
2. Cumulative impacts: EBM focuses on how individual actions
affect the ecosystem services that flow from coupled
social-ecological systems in an integrated fashion, rather than
considering these impacts in a piecemeal manner.
3. Multiple objectives: EBM focuses on the diverse benefits
provided by marine systems, rather than on single ecosystem services.
Such benefits or services include vibrant commercial and recreational
fisheries, biodiversity conservation, renewable energy from wind or
waves, coastal protection, diving, and sea kayaking.
4. Embracing change: Coupled social-ecological systems are
constantly changing in ways that cannot be fully predicted or
controlled. Understanding the resilience of these systems, i.e., the
extent to which they can maintain structure, function, and identity
in the face of disturbance, can enable better prediction of how they
will respond not only to both natural and anthropogenic
perturbations, including changes in environmental management.
5. Learning and adaptation: Because of the lack of control and
predictability of coupled social-ecological systems, an adaptive
management approach is recommended.
Notably, there is no single correct path to ecosystem-based
management — on land or in the ocean. The approach will be put into
practice in many different places across a range of geographic
scales, each with its own unique historical, ecological, and social
context. The range of suitable strategies will also vary based on the
types of management and governance already in place
The Ecosystem Approach
is considered one of the most important principles of sustainable
management. The Fifth
Conference of the Parties to the Convention
on Biological Diversity defined
the Ecosystem Approach in Decision V/6, Annex a, section 1 as "a
strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living
resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an
equitable way" Essentially it requires the taking into
consideration of the effects of actions on every element of an
based on the recognition that all elements of an ecosystem are
There is no doubt that there is
a major problem with the world's fisheries, and, despite serious
attempts to improve management and to facilitate recovery of depleted
stocks, the success has been limited. Managing
fisheries is about managing people and businesses, and not about
managing fish. Fish populations are managed by regulating the actions
of people. If fisheries management is to be successful, then
associated human factors, such as the reactions of fishermen, are of
key importance, and need to be understood.
The management of
commercial fisheries clearly requires a good scientific understanding
of the behavior of the
or stocks. Management
regulations must also consider the implications for stakeholders.
Commercial fishermen rely on catches to provide for their families
just as farmers rely on crops. Commercial fishing can be a
traditional trade passed down from generation to generation. Most
commercial fishing is based in towns built around the fishing
industry; regulation changes can impact an entire town’s economy.
Cuts in harvest quotas can have adverse affects on the ability of
fishermen to compete with the tourism industry.
McLeod, K. L., and H. M. Leslie.,
2009. Ecosystem-Based Management for the Oceans. Island Press,
Yaffee, S. L. 1999.
Three Faces of Ecosystem Management. Conservation Biology
Rome (2009) A
Fishery Manager's Guidebook
Eds. Cochrane KL and Garcia S. ISBN
Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries
Seafood — Fish — Crustacea
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