An Overview of Disaster
Management including Fisheries in India
Amod Ashok Salgaonkar, Trivesh
Suresh Mayekar, Jayappa Malappa Koli,
Girija Phadke, Amit Kumar Padhy, Abhay Giri, Banti Debnath,
Swapnil Shirke, Monalisha Sukham, Srikrishna Hotekar.
Institute of Fisheries Education,
Corresponding author e-mail ID : firstname.lastname@example.org
There will be an
increase in number of disasters in India from last couple of years. Our country
is vulnerable to natural disasters in South Asia. On an average, 40 million
hectares of land in India is subjected to flood & around 1.86 million
hectares affected every year. India is facing five-six tropical cyclones in
Arabian Sea & Bay of Bengal each year out of which two-three may be severe.
disaster is defined as "a social
crisis, situation occurring when a physical phenomenon of natural,
socio-natural or anthropogenic origin negatively impacts vulnerable population
causing intense, serious and widespread destruction of the normal functioning
of the affected social unit."(Source: UNDP). A disaster is "the occurrence of
a sudden or major misfortune which describes the basic fabric and normal
functioning of a society (or a community). An event or a series of events which
gives rise to casualities and/or damage or loss of property, infrastructure,
essential services or mean of livelihood on a scale which is beyond the normal
capacity of the affected communities to cope with unaided." (FAO,1998).
Disasters in India
Supercyclone occurred in
Orissa in 1999 affected 12 coastal districts with a population of 1.26 crores
in 14,000 villages & 28 urban areas. From last 10-15 years, India faced
several earthquakes, major ones are uttara kashi, latur & Jabalpur. 16,000
people died in earthquake of Gujarat in 2001 with a financial loss of 15,000
millions. The earthquake of December 26, 2004 affected Nagapattinam, Cuddalore,
Kanyakumari, Chennai, Kanchipuram, Villipuram, Tuticorin & Tirunelveli
districts in Tamilnadu with some parts of country resulted in killing of over
11,942 people. Tsunami hit the Indian coast in 2004 & badly affected
Andaman & Nicobar Islands, three coastal districts of Tamilnadu, whole
coastal area of Pondicherry, one district of Kerala state & two districts
in Andhra Pradesh.
Mitigation :- Any activity that
reduces the chances of hazards converting into disaster.
Risk Reduction :- Measures or action to avoid the risks
as a result of disaster in future.
Prevention :- Preventive measure taken to avoid
Preparedness :- Plans or preparation made in advance to
save the property & lives of people as well as help the response &
rescue service operations. This includes implementation/operation, early warning
systems & capacity building.
Response:- Actions taken to save lives of people
& to prevent damage of property. Try to keep environment as good as
possible during disaster.
Recovery:- Actions taken to
recover the people after disaster & help them to come on their routine
in Disaster Warning
The United Nations
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR), identifies several
keys that play major role in disaster management process, especially in
disaster warning (UN/ISDR 2006).
Communities :- Community is the most
essential part of the disaster warning. They are the first who is going to
affect so they must be aware of hazards & negative impacts of the disaster.
They must be able to take proper decisions in such a way that there will be
minimum damage or loss to their lives & properties. For this, communities
should be trained how to face specific disaster. E.g. Coastal communities
should be educated & prepared for the possibility of Tsunami.
Local Government :- The local government should have the
enough information regarding hazard & disaster to which communities are
exposed. They have to maintain early warning system & take care of safety
of people. They should minimize the loss of people as much as they can.
National Government :- They are responsible for policies &
framework to facilitate early warning systems in the areas that affect largely
in the country. National Government should provide the support to local
government & local communities to develop the capabilities in the
respective area. They can work through different macro & micro level
International Bodies :- Help in exchange of data & knowledge
between individual countries. Provide technical guldens, policy making,
advisory information & support for early warning system.
Private Sector :- Private sector helps
especially in terms of donation of good & services. Also they can provide
technical manpower to improve the disaster condition.
Media :- Media plays major role as it is the
link between disaster warning system & common people.
Scientific Community :- Has a critical role to assist or guide
government & communities in developing early warning system.
Used for Disaster Warning:-
The different channels
are in use for disaster warning. The brief account on different channels used
are as follows:
1. Television &
:- These are most effectively used channel in disaster warnings because there
will be good availability of radio & TV sets in all developing countries. After Indian Ocean Tsunami
of 2004, many manufacturers considered introducing new digital alert system
that react even if the set is switched off but it will take other 2-3 yrs to
come in reality.
2. Telephone (Fixed & Mobile):- It can play an
important for giving the warning
of disaster. Most popular incident occurred in small coastal village in
Nallavadu of Pondicherry. A timely telephone call-warning about the tsunami
saved the life of 3,600 people in that village.
3. Short Message Service:- It can be very useful
to give warning of disaster when there will be the problem of communicating
through fixed telephones. The use of SMS was very widely done during the 2005
Hurricane Katrina disaster in the US.
4. Satellite Radio :- It is the digital
radio that receives the signals from communication satellites which cover much
larger geographic area than terrestrial radio. It can be of help when the
transmission towers of normal radio stations are damaged in disaster.
5. Internet/E-mail :- It is the fastest
disaster warning system. At a time, we can send the information to a lot of
people within a short span of time.
Disaster Impact on the Fisheries Sector :-
affect the fisheries sector in many ways. Loss of lives is major impact with
economic & social loss. The losses are in the form of damaged & lost
boats, gear, fish cages, aquaculture broodstock & other productive assets,
destruction of infrastructure such as landing and fish processing facilities,
& loss of production(e.g.as fish escaping from aquaculture ponds).
outbreaks & other threats to farmed fishes in particular cause the loss of
production. This losses affected directly on the income of communities.
Environmental damages through accidents such as an oil spill may result in
closing of fishery.
Legislative Framework : -
Management Committee under the chairmanship of Prime minister is the highest
authority in a country (INDIA) to take a dicision against disaster. Ministry of
Home Affairs is designated as ministry responsible to carry out work for
disaster management. The Central Relief Commissioner (CRC) in the ministry is a
responsible person to co-ordinate the disaster management operations. The
crisis management group includes the representatives from various ministries
& agencies and the group is headed by CRC of Ministry of Home Affairs. The
National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) is headed by Cabinet Secretary. The
NCMC gives directions to the crisis management group. The Secretary, Ministry
of Home Affairs is responsible for ensuring that all developments are brought
to the notice of NCMC. The NCMC can give directions to any
ministry/organization for specific action needed for meeting the crisis
Role of ISRO in Disaster Management :-
developed more than 250 CWDS (Cyclone Warning Dissemination System) in the
coastal areas of India. Also for strengthening of observation network,
Automatic Weather Station (AWS) were developed through industry partnership.
Doppler Weather radar has been developed at Sriharikota for continuous
monitoring of severe weather events & to check key parameters for
atmospheric studies. Decision support centre at NRSA (National Remote Sensing
Agency), Hyderabad provides alert(advanced) information on disaster with the
help of disaster forecasting organizations (like CWC,IMD) and other sources
(like press/TV, local bodies, NGOÕs) etc.
& Remote Sensing provides a mechanism to centralize & visually display
critical information during an emergency.
Indian Disaster Resource Network :-
Indian Disaster Resource
Network (IDRN) is a web-enabled & GIS based national database of resources
essential for effective emergency response. The project, initiated by Ministry
of Home Affairs & UNDP, collects & store information such as indivisual
& organizational expertise and details of equipment & suppliers
required during emergencies, available at government departments, military
units, NGOÕs and private companies in different districts.
NGOÕs in Disaster Management :
Non-Government Organisation. NGO is "a civic or public advocacy organization
which generates, transfers or administers humanitarian & other aid" . NGOÕs
can create awareness, preparedness, training, education, capacity building and
undertake emergency relief measures. It is a link between government &
Area Disaster Mitigation Efforts), a network of 20 voluntary organizations work
for a programme called "Community induced early warnings & preparedness" in
more than 350 vulnerable villages in coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh. They also
established taskforce groups at each vulnerable village to mitigate the effects
of disaster as well as to help their co-villagers in pre-disaster &
post-disaster situations. Chaitnya Jyoti Welfare Society (CJWS) situated at
Nellore in Andhra Pradesh working on disaster risk reduction & management
in coastal mandals.
national & international NGOÕs involved in disaster management are: