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PRESENT TREND OF WORLD MARINE CAPTURE FISHERIES RESOURCES


Global Overview of Marine Fishery Resources

Jitendra Kumar

College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries

Sciences University, Mangalore - 575002, India

Email: jitenderanduat@gmail.com



INTRODUCTION

Fisheries sector play an important role in the socio-economic status of farming communities in India. Marine fisheries are very important to the economy and well-being of coastal communities, providing food security, job opportunities, income and livelihoods as well as traditional cultural identity. They produced 80 million tonnes of fish in 2009 and directly employed 34 million people in fishing operations in 2008 (FAO, 2010).

Fish and fishery products are a vital and affordable source of high-quality protein, especially in the world's poorest nations - in 2008, fish supplied more than 3 billion people with at least 15 percent of their average animal protein intake (FAO, 2010).


PROFILE OF CATCHES

The world's fisheries and aquaculture sectors have gone through a dramatic development in the last 60 years, and there have been large increases in their production. Total world fish production was only 19.3 million tonnes in 1950, but it increased dramatically to 163 million tonnes in 2009. Marine capture fisheries have always been the largest contributor to world fish production. In 1950, marine captures were 16.7 million tonnes and accounted for 86 percent of total world fish production. In the last two decades, marine and inland aquaculture has expanded rapidly, and the relative contribution of marine capture fisheries to the growing total world fish production has shrunk. Nevertheless, marine capture fisheries still contributed 49 percent of the world's fish production in 2009, the largest sector in comparison with mariculture (21 percent), freshwater aquaculture (23 percent) and inland capture fishery (6 percent).

Marine fisheries have experienced different development stages, increasing from 16.7 million tonnes in 1950 to a peak of 87.7 million tonnes in 1996, and then declining to stabilize at about 80 million tonnes, with interannual fluctuations. Global recorded production was 79.5 million tonnes in 2009. Rapid development was seen in the late 1950s and 1960s and between 1983 and 1989.

World Production From Different Sectors of Fisheries and Aquaculture




CATCH COMPOSITION

Pelagic speciescomprise the largest proportion of the global marine catches.

Small pelagic (ISSCAAP Group 35: herrings, sardines, anchovies, etc.) contributed about 22 percent (19.9 million tonnes) of the total catch in 2009.

The large pelagic

(ISSCAAP Groups 36 and 37: tunas, bonitos, billfishes and miscellaneous pelagics) accounted for 19 percent (16.6 million tonnes) of the total catches in 2009.


Demersal fishes (ISSCAAP Groups 31, 32 and 34: flounders, halibuts, soles, cods, hakes, haddocks and miscellaneous demersals) contributed 12 percent of the total catches in 2009 (10.9 million tonnes), compared with almost 26 percent in the 1950s and 1970s. Miscellaneous coastal fishes (ISSCAAP Group 33) increased slightly to 8 percent (7.2 million tonnes) from 7 percent in 2009.


World Marine catch by species group 2009Catches over time three groups pelegic, demersal, others

In 2009, pelagic, demersal and other species represented 46 percent, 24 percent, and 30 percent, respectively.


The distribution of landings among species is highly skewed. Among the 221 pelagic species recorded, the top ten were anchoveta, Atlantic herring, chub mackerel, Chilean jack mackerel, Japanese pilchard, South American pilchard, capelin, skipjack tuna, European pilchard (= sardine), and Japanese anchovy, in sequence of the average catch from 1950 to 2009. Together, they contributed about 50 percent of the total pelagic landings in 2009 and about 22.5 percent of total global landings.

Peruvian anchovy has recorded the largest catches of pelagic species and demonstrated the most dramatic variations. It had a peak catch of 12 million tonnes in 1969, very low catches between 1970 and 1990, and resurging back to about 12 million tonnes in 1994, and was still 7 million tonnes in 2009.

Temporal catch patterns of the top ten pelagic speices


For demersal species, the top ten species were Alaska pollock (= walleye pollock), Atlantic cod, largehead hairtail, blue whiting (= poutassou), sandeels (= sandlances) NEI, haddock, saithe (= pollock), Cape hakes, Atlantic redfishes NEI, and flatfishes NEI, ordered in terms of average annual landings from 1950 to 2009. In general, production of the top ten demersal species is not as high as that of pelagic species, nor do they exhibit variations in catch of the same extent. These ten species produced 37 percent of the total demersal landings in 2009.


Temporal catch patterns of the top ten demersal speices

STATE OF EXPLOITATION

Since its first publication of the global review of marine fish stocks in 1971 (Gulland, 1971), the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department has been regularly assessing and monitoring the state of world marine fish resources. Assessment methodologies used in its reviews are described in Appendix. As explained there and in the last paragraph of this section, a modified approach has been adopted for this review. This includes the reduction of the number of categories of state of exploitation from five to three.

A primary goal of this change has been an attempt to ensure greater standardization in the assessment methods between regions. At the same time, it also recognizes the large differences in the amount and quality of data and information available in different regions. This new method will probably have led to slight differences in the regional assessments of state of exploitation compared with the result that would have been obtained with the previously used approach. This could mean that the two approaches may not be directly comparable. However, this issue should not affect the aggregated global estimates. These should be comparable, taking into account the large uncertainties that are an unavoidable feature of any global assessment of the state of stocks.


Global trends in marine fish stock status from 1974 to 2009




OVERFISHING PRACTICESGlobal Stock Status

  • Peru -1st

  • Japan -2>nd

  • Chile-3rd

  • India -11th

Overfishing can be defined in a number of ways. However, everything comes down to one simple point: Catching too much fish for the system to support leads to an overall degradation to the system. Overfishing is a non-sustainable use of the oceans.

GLOBAL STOCK STATUS

Of the fish stocks assessed, 57.4 percent were estimated to be fully exploited in 2009.

These stocks produced catches that were already at or very close to their maximum sustainable production. They have no room for further expansion in catch, and even some risk of decline if not properly managed. Among the remaining stocks, 29.9 percent were overexploited, and 12.7 percent non-fully exploited in 2009.

Percentages of fish stocks in different status by major fishing areas in 2009


Contribution of various groups of organisms to capture landings (by weight) and to the economic value of capture production

Species group

% of capture landings

% of capture value

Shrimp, prawns

3.2

12.6

Tunas, bonitos, billfishes

6.5

11.1

Cods, hakes, haddocks

6.2

7.3

Squid, cuttlefish, octopuses

3.4

6.4

Herring, sardines, anchovies

11.6

3.7

Crabs, sea-spiders

1.2

3.4

Lobsters, spiny-rock lobsters

0.2

2.6

Flounders, halibuts, soles

1.0

2.6

Bivalve mollusks

2.2

2.5

Salmon, trout, smelt

0.9

2.3


DISCUSSION

The total production of marine fishery resources has declined gradually after reaching a peak in landings in 1996. Is it possible to increase global fishery production any further? One way in which yields could be increased is to rebuild the 30 percent overfished stocks so that they can produce close to their MSY.

This should lead to a net increase in landings. However, it is difficult to estimate the extent of this increase because it is not only related to the current abundance of overfished stocks but also depends on the biological and technical interactions between species. Nevertheless, the top ten demersal species have 43 percent of stocks overfished. As a result, their 2009 production was only 51 percent of their peak level. This may give some indication of the scale of catch loss caused by overfishing. However, better estimates of the lost production will require a combination of stock assessments and ecosystem modelling.

A second approach for increasing global production would be to intensify exploitation of the non-fully exploited stocks (13 percent of the monitored stocks). To avoid the same pattern of overfishing that has been experienced with other species in the past, any attempt to intensify exploitation on non-fully exploited stocks should be accompanied by precautionary management plans.



RECENT PRODUCTION TRENDS IN FISHERIES (INDIA)

2009-10Fish production in India

  • Total India fish production-8.0mt

  • Marine fish production-3.07mt

  • Inland production-4.73mt

  • Annual growth rate 4.75%

  • Share towards total G D P -1.10%

  • Share towards national GDP - 5.3%

  • Marine growth rate-3.2%

  • Inland growth rate- 6.2%

  • 14 million people engaged

  • 10,048 cores annual income

  • Export ammount-678000tons



  • India rank 3rd in total fish production

  • India rank 2nd largest producer of inland fish in the world

  • Present fish production is estimated at 8.00 mt

Inland - 3.07 mt

Marine-4.93 mt

  • Annual per capita fish availability - 9 kg



STATUS OF FISHERY RESOURCES OF INDIA

S. no.

Resources

unit

Extent/no

1.

Length of coastal line

Km

8129

2

Continental self area

Mill.sq.km

0.53

3

EEZ

Mill.sq.km

2.02

4

Rivers and canals

km

1,97,024

5

Reservoir

Million ha

3.15

6

Ponds and tanks

Million ha

2.35

7

Brackish water ponds/area

Million ha

1.24


STATE WISE MARINE FISHERIES RESOURCES** PLEASE DESCRIBE THIS IMAGE **

STATE-WISE FISH PRODUCTION DURING THE PERIOD 2008-09 (MARINE+INLAND)

** PLEASE DESCRIBE THIS IMAGE **** PLEASE DESCRIBE THIS IMAGE **




FISH MARKET TRENDS

  • Japan: long-term decline but small rebound 2008, decline in 2009

  • high consumption but falling: 65 kg/kaput

  • imports below 3 million tons in 2007

  • USA: long-term growth

  • rising population and consumption /kaput 24 kg

  • consumer confidence falling late 2008 and 2009

  • EU: long-term growth:

  • expanding population, stable consumption at 20 kg

  • rising imports: e.g. catfish from Viet Nam, mussels from Chile


CONCLUSIONS

Fish has always been a globalized commodity

  • but of higher importance for developing countries than most other commodities

Fish production is increasing, but only thanks to aquaculture: 47% share in 2009 in food fish

Fish trade trend is positive: USD 100 billion in 2008, but drop in 2009

Fish trade: big 3 import 66 % but in decline

Outsourcing of production and processing

  • Rise of China and Viet Nam, and Russia

  • Future: India?

Aquaculture will determine overall future supply

  • sustainable aquaculture development must build on inclusion of economic, social and environmental criteria


REFERENCES

FAO-569, 2011.Review of the state of world marine fishery resources, Global overview of marine fishery resources, PP-3-18.

FAO-457, 2005.Review of the state of world marine fishery resources, Global overview of marine fishery resources, PP-1-15.

Handbook of fisheries and Aquaculture.

Klyashtorin, L. B., 2001. Climate change and long-term fluctuations of commercial catches: the possibility of forecasting (FAO Technical Report No. 410), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Simonds, K. M., 2003. Managing marine fisheries of Hawaii and the U.S. Pacific islands - past, present, and future. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. http://www.wpcouncil.org/.

Watson, R., Pauly, D., 2001. Systematic distortions in world fisheries catch trends. Nature 414, 534-536.

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