Fishing Business For Sustainable Development:
Current Scenario In Indo-Asia.
ICFAI University, Tripura
Aquaculture and fisheries has proved to be the answer to the growing need to produce nutritive food stuff for the global population. The sustainability of the practice has also been established by numerous works evident in the literature. The present study depicts the post millennium scenario of global aquaculture and fisheries production as well as consumption with an emphasis on the Indo-Asiatic region. The paper reviews the statistics with respect to the revenue earned by this sector and its significance in the recent times.
Economics, India, Revenue, Sustainability, Production.
The Millennium World Food Summit,
2000 held in New York set an ambitious target of halving
the percentage of hungry people by 2015. The WFS overall
objective was "... to eradicate hunger in all
countries, with an immediate view to reducing the
number of undernourished people to half, no later
than 2015". This represented a target goal of
412 million undernourished people; down from 824 million
(estimated) in 1996 it self. During the beginning
of the new millennium i.e. from 2000 to 2002 it was
estimated that 852 million people were undernourished
world wide. The global population in the mean time
has increased in several folds.
It is relevant to mention that food
security is a complex phenomenon that relates more
to economic development and poverty than to increasing
production per se (FAO, 2005b).The produced food must
therefore be available to the people at a reasonable
price and legislation must prohibit illegal storage
and black marketing etc. So the concern of providing
food and nourishment to the exponentially growing
global populace is a challenge that should be tackled
by the policy makers with a sustainable approach.
Intensive aquaculture practices in
this context is seen as an alternative to meet the
widening gap in global rising demand and decreasing
supply of nutritive food products. It has vast potential
in providing livelihood security as well as fulfilling
the nutritional requirements of the growing population
and becoming an increasingly important food production
The strata of Indian problem i.e.
from providing food and nutrition to one of the largest
population of the world, generation of employment
for the youth and socioeconomic development of the
villages can be answered partially to an effective
extant by means of integrated management practices
of natural resources such as intensive aquaculture.
Meeting the demand for cheap and best animal
About one billion human beings worldwide
depend on fish as their primary means of animal protein.
Fish contributes around 50% of total animal protein
consumed in Indonesia, Japan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh
and Cambodia. Aquaculture and fisheries can meet the
huge demand for nutritive, value for money food and
Consumption of both high and low
value food fish is growing in the developing world
and the developed countries as well (FAO, 2005). In
2004, per capita food fish supply was estimated at
13.5 kg. On an average fish provided more than 2.6
billion people with at least 20% of their average
per capita animal protein intake. Global consumption
of fish per capita in 2005 was at a peak of 16.6 kg
per capita. The share of fish protein in total world
animal protein supplies grew from 14.9% in 1992 to
a peak of 16.0% in 1996. Notwithstanding the relatively
low fish consumption by weight in low-income food-deficit
countries (LIFDCs) the contribution of fish to total
animal protein intake was significant at about 20%
and is probably higher than indicated by official
statistics in view of the unrecorded contribution
of subsistence fisheries (FAO, 2007).
Growing domestic demand within developing
nations for fish is driven by good governance n the
sector ensuring easy availability and economical pricing
of per Kg fish protein. In the rich world fish and
related products are increasingly seen as a healthy
luxury food due to regular media reports of newer
scientific findings about nutritional benefits of
fish and related products. Fish products are now actively
marketed by mega life style stores in the biggest
business districts of the world. In contrast Asia
and many other developing countries still serve fish
as an important part of the staple diet.
The fish and related food products
are generated either by capture fisheries or by culture
fisheries (aquaculture).Culture fisheries is more
sustainable than of capture fisheries in ecological
viewpoint. Aquaculture market is set to witness the
growth of about 4% or more in recent times.
Capture fisheries and aquaculture
supplied the world with about 106 million tonnes of
food fish in 2004, providing an apparent per capita
supply of 16.6 kg (live weight equivalent or LWE).
Of this total, aquaculture accounted for 43%. In 2005
aquaculture production was at a record 47.5 million
tonnes, or 34% of total fish production. If calculated
on the basis of fish for human consumption only, aquaculture
production constitutes 44.6% of the total. Global
aquaculture and fisheries market crossed 67 million
tons approximately in 2008. According to reliable
media reports Global aquaculture and fisheries market
is expected to exceed 123 million tonnes by the end
of 2009. An FAO study projects that capture fisheries
could produce some 12 million tonnes more by 2015,
compared with 2005 levels, and that aquaculture production
could reach 66.8 million tonnes by then.
Over the years the magnitude at which
fish and related food products are preserved and processed,
has also increased in several folds through out the
world. This nevertheless is a clear indication of
serious business, as the global community is engaging
actively in the food fish industry. In 2004, about
75% (105.6 million tonne) of estimated world fish
production was used for direct human consumption,
and the remaining 25% (34.8 million tonne) was processed
into feeds, mostly fishmeal and oil (FAO, 2007), besides
7.3 million tonne discarded. Some 61% (86 million
tonne) of the world's fish production (2004 figures)
underwent some form of processing, and 59% (51 million
tonne) of this processed fish was used for manufacturing
products for direct human consumption in frozen, cured
and canned form. The rest went for non-food uses.
Unlike many other food products, processing fish does
not necessarily increase the price of the final product,
and fresh fish is often the most highly priced product
form. Freezing is the main method of processing fish
for food use, accounting for 53% of total processed
fish for human consumption in 2004, followed by canning
(24%) and curing (23%). In developed countries, the
proportion of fish that is frozen has been constantly
increasing, and in 2004 accounted for 40% of total
production. In comparison, the share of frozen products
was 13% of total production in developing countries.
Utilization of fish production shows marked continental,
regional and national differences. The proportion
of cured fish is higher in Africa (17% in 2004) and
Asia (11%) compared with other continents. In Europe
and North America, more than two-thirds of fish used
for human consumption was preserved in frozen and
canned forms. All these statistics had an upside move
during the next couple of years.
Aquaculture and its Economics
Revenue and ForEx:
During the year 2003 the export value
of world trade in fish was US$63 billion which was
more than the combined value of net exports of rice,
coffee, sugar and tea. Half of global fish trade comes
from developing countries, while global consumption
increased by 21% between 1992 and 2002. In 2004, total
world trade in fish and fishery products reached a
record value of US$71.5 billion (export value), representing
23% growth relative to 2000 and 51% increase since
1994. Preliminary estimates for 2005 indicate a further
increase in the value of fishery exports. In real
terms (adjusted for inflation), exports of fish and
fishery products increased by 17.3% during the period
2000 to 2004, 18.2% during 1994 to 2004 and 143.9%
between 1984 and 2004. Fish is traded widely, so today
it can be said that fish from all corners of the world
can be found on the international market. In 2004,
about 38% of all fish produced (LWE) was exported
as various food and feed products. Developed countries
exported some 23 million tonne of fish (LWE) in 2004.
Although a part of this trade may be re-exports, this
amount corresponds to about 75% of their production.
Exports from developing countries (30 million tonne
LWE) totaled around one-quarter of their combined
production, but, remarkably, the share of developing
countries in total fishery exports was 48% by value
and 57% by quantity (FAO, 2007). For the developing
world, fish exports have become an ever more important
source of foreign exchange.
Fish is classified in the world trading
system with industrial products, and thus carries
very low tariffs compared with agricultural goods.
Some 38% (by volume) of all fishery production enters
international trade, with over half of that originating
in developing countries. The globalization of fisheries
and the wide participation by both developed and developing
countries in world fish trade is encouraging for the
aquaculture communities. (Valdimarsson , 2007) and
the explosive growth in this sector over past decades
has been accompanied by a boom in international fish
trade (FAO. 2005d) (Valdimarsson, et al., 2005).
Generation of Employment and livelihood:
Aquaculture and Fisheries sector
over the years has also contributed significantly
in employment generation. According to 2007-08 estimates
of the World Bank, the livelihood of about 200 million
people relies on fisheries, aquaculture and associated
activities. Small scale and large scale fish farms
were actively involving skilled and non skilled work
force. The numbers of small scale or subsistence fisheries
has been constantly rising over the last decades through
out the world and were estimated to be over 41 million
in 2004, including some 11 million fish farmers. Many
a times the same individuals are engaged in both (FAO,
2007). The contribution of the small-scale fleet to
fish for human consumption may be as high as 50%.
However, in industrialized countries the number of
individuals engaged in organized or unorganized fishing
business was much lower in comparison and estimated
to be about 1 million.
Ecological sustainability of aquaculture over
The huge market for fish and related
products also has environmental concerns in addition
to economical and social challenges. The plethora
of the demand is causing strains regarding trade policies
as well as conservation of biodiversity which has
exacerbated the need for fisheries management capable
of scientific and social innovations and to keep fish
catches within sustainable limits. In recent times
the global community has emphasized much on sustainable
and inclusive development to bring about fundamental
changes and growth in all spheres of human life. Although
the overall growth in the fisheries sector is very
much encouraging, but sustainable aquaculture practices
and innovations are therefore a current need of the
day. Coastal and inland capture fisheries are putting
pressure on fish stocks worldwide (Charles, A.T 2001).
Maximum Sustainable Yield, an important concept in
aquaculture has been developed to avoid overexploitation
of fishing sites. The exploitation pressure if crosses
certain threshold will lead to an irreversible damage
on the ecosystem. Ecosystems as such cannot be managed,
but only the human activities of exploiting them (FAO,
2003a) can be regulated. Over the last two decades,
the marine fishery resources of the world have been
increasingly subjected to overexploitation (Bodiguel
et al, 2009) mainly due to detrimental fishing practices
leading to environmental degradation (FAO.2005d).
This phenomenon has adversely affected a majority
of fisheries worldwide, with very severe consequences
in terms of resource destruction due to loss of breeding
grounds, massive economic wastage due to sudden fall
in the fish catch and increasing social cost as well
as food insecurity (FAO.2003b).
Currently, FAO estimates that more
than 25% of the all fish stocks on which it has information
are over fished, depleted or recovering from depletion,
whereas 52% of the stocks are fully fished and only
23% of the stocks could produce more (FAO, 2007).
The worldwide wild capture fisheries potential has
reached its limit (De Silva et al., 2009) and so the
huge demand for aquatic protein will be satisfied
by aquaculture. Therefore the farmers and fishers
should be encouraged to engage in responsible fishing
(France and Exel, 2000) following good fisheries governance
(Sinclair et al., 2002). Intensive aquaculture as
well as innovative protocols should be developed with
a collaboration of all the governments with an integrative
approach by combining scientific and technological
advancements so that the global biodiversity resources
are not exhausted or over exploited.
Aquaculture and fisheries in Asiatic region
Asia, the epicenter of the global
aquaculture industry, accounts for over 90% of the
global aquaculture production quantity and about 80%
of the value. Asia-Pacific region forms the major
fisheries and aquaculture market in terms of production.
Among the top ten countries where fish plays an important
role of animal protein supply, four are African countries
and five are from the Asiatic region.
During 2006 the Asia-Pacific region
lead production of Aquaculture and Fisheries with
an estimated share of about 60% of the global out
put, as stated by Global Industry Analysts, Inc a
global economics research firm. Asia-Pacific is forecast
to maintain leadership position with a CAGR of over
3.3% during 2006-09. Europe and Japan represent the
other major regions for Aquaculture and Fisheries.
Europe is projected to account for over 19 million
tons of aquaculture and fisheries product by the year
Aquaculture and fisheries in India: The Current scenario
The National Agriculture Policy 2000
of Government of India accorded high priority to increase
protein availability in the food basket and generation
of exportable surpluses. India being a developing
nation, is constantly exploring ideas for an inclusive
sustainable development for the people. Fisheries
sector plays a very important role in the socio economic
development of India. Indian fisheries has made great
strides during last five decades with the production
levels increasing from 750,000 tonnes of fish in 1950-51
to 6.4 million tons in 2005-2006, of which the contribution
from the inland sector is around 3.3 million tons
(51.6 % of the total) compared to 3.10 million tons
(48.4 %) from the marine sector. India’s contribution
to global fish production increased from 3.26 percent
in 1985 (Alagarswami, K. 1995) to 4.41 percent in
The contribution of fisheries to
the gross domestic product (GDP) and agriculture GDP
has been estimated to be 1.2 and 4.2 %, respectively.
India ranks second in world inland fish production,
next to China. The growth rate of inland and marine
sector at present is 6.6 and 2.2%, respectively. During
2006-07 total fish production of 6.57 million metric
tonnes had nearly 55% contribution from the inland
sector and nearly the same from culture fisheries.
The growth rate during the tenth
five-year plan (2002-2007) for inland and marine fisheries
were 8.0% and 2.5 %, respectively. According to Foreign
Trade Statistics of India (Principal Commodities and
Countries), DGCI&S during the recent years there
has been steady growth in the revenue earned by India
from marine products. During 2000-01 total revenue
earned from marine products was 6296.00 cores INR
whereas during 2006-07 it was 7296.06 corers INR.
In the post independent period India,s marine fish
production increased from 0.5 million tonnes in 1950
to three million tonnes annually and foreign exchange
worth Rs 8,000 crore through seafood exports is being
earned up to January 2009.
According to the annual report of
Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New
Delhi the State-wise Fish Production during the period
2006-07, depicts that four states with West Bengal
on top of the list has produced the maximum of total
fish products. According to the statistics West Bengal
produced 1359.10 thousand tonnes of fish. Andhra Pradesh
produced 856.93 thousand tones. Gujrat produced 747.33
thousand tones, whereas Kerala produced 677.63 thousand
tones of fish.
Compared to growth in world fish
production, fish production in India has increased
at a faster rate mainly due to increasing volume of
inland fish production (Krishnan, et al 2000). Inland
fisheries and aquaculture has made rapid progress
and are contributing around 50 percent of the total
fish production in the country (Krishnan et al., 2001).
By 2020, India, Latin America and China are projected
to be the top exporters of aquaculture and fisheries
India is indeed endowed with vast
and varied fishery resource and a steady growth has
been observed in harnessing fisher resources in the
recent years. In the present decade least production
was observed during 2000-01 when the total Fish production
was 5.65 million tonnes including both Marine and
Inland resources. Fish production during the year
2004-05 was 6.304 million tones comprising 2.778 million
tonnes of marine fish and 3.526 million tonnes of
inland fish. There has been steady growth in the export
of fish Products. During 2004-05 the country exported
0.437 million tonnes of marine products, which resulted
in export earning of Rs. 6188.92 crore (INR). Efforts
are being made to boost the export potential through
diversification of products for export. The country
has now started exports of frozen squid, cuttle fish
and variety of other finfishes. According to Department
of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries Ministry
of Agriculture, Govt. of India, till 2004-05 about
6.74 lakh hectare of water area was brought under
scientific fish farming through Fish Farmers Development
Agencies (FFDA). This growth if not phenomenal is
no doubt encouraging, which pushed India as the second
important country in Aquaculture production next to
China. The rate of growth in contribution of fisheries
to Indias gross domestic product has started to approach
the rate of growth in its gross domestic product.
Indian fisheries and aquaculture
has proved to be an important sector not only for
food production and providing nutritional security
to the food basket but also for contributing to the
agricultural exports and engaging about fourteen million
people in different related activities. With diverse
resources ranging from deep seas to lakes in the mountains
and more than 10% of the global biodiversity in terms
of fish and shellfish species, the country has shown
continuous and sustained increments in fish production
According to the reports of the National
Fisheries Development Board, Government of India,
during 2007-08 India contributed about 4.4% of the
global fish production. In India, fisheries sector
contributed to 1.1% of the GDP and 5.30 % of the agricultural
GDP. Per capita fish availability had been 9.0 kgs
and annual export earnings were 7,200 Crore (INR).
14 million employment opportunities have been generated
by this sector till 2008-09.
Paradigm shifts in terms of increasing
contributions of aquatic protein from inland fisheries
and aquaculture has been significant over the years.
Aquaculture can provide nutritious food to eliminate
malnutrition and related complications globally, with
a low carbon footprint. A modern outlook and sufficient
penetration of institutional finance may bring about
the Blue revolution in aquaculture and fisheries sector
in India and it is very much an achievable dream.
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ANNUAL REPORT 2007 – 2008 ; Department
of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New
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