Aquatic Fish Database est. 1991

Search Supplier Directory
    Add Your Company
    Update Your Listing
Wholesale Supplier Short List
Fish Fact Sheets

Search Companies Directory
    Add Your Company
    Update Your Listing

Wholesale Seafood Traders
Wholesale Aquaculture Traders
Wholesale Ornamental Fish Traders

Capelin + Imports & Exports
Catfish + Imports & Exports
Crab/Shellfish + Imports & Exports
Fish Meal + Imports & Exports
Fish Oil + Imports & Exports
Groundfish + Imports & Exports
Grouper + Imports & Exports
Lobster + Imports & Exports
Octopus + Imports & Exports
Oyster + Imports & Exports
Salmon + Imports & Exports
Scallop + Imports & Exports
Seabass + Imports & Exports
Shrimp + Imports & Exports
Squid + Imports & Exports
Tilapia + Imports & Exports
Tuna + Imports & Exports

Cod Links
Definitions and Terms
Fish Fact Sheets
Market Prices
Market Reports
Seafood Links
Tilapia Links

About Aquafind
Aquatic Posters
Contact AquaFind
Currency Converter
Featured Product Pages
Scientific Aquacultrue Papers
World Clock
Shrimp & Seafood Recipes

Chinese French German Italian Spanish Russian

Custom Search

Bookmark and Share

Modified Aquaculture Systems In India

Amrita Pritam Shivani, Dr. S. K. Sharma, Vaibhaw Kumar, Minal S. Wagde, Varun Mishra

College of Fisheries, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur 313 001

Aquaculture is the culture of aquatic organisms under controlled and semi-controlled conditions. Aquaculture can play an important role in meeting the future nutrition requirements of human population in terms of quality protein supply. India is the third largest producer of fish next only to China and Peru and it ranks second in aquaculture production. Now many types of culture systems as cage culture, pen culture, raft culture etc, are used to increase their potentiality as well as net income of India. Pen culture can be considered as a modified culture system. Advantages of that type of culture, is that the fish can be cultured in the natural environment of river streams or irrigation canals without any supplementary food or little supplementary food.

A Pen is defined as "a fixed enclosure in which the bottom is the bed of the water body". The pen or enclosure may be (a) completely enclosed on all four sides in the middle of a bay, with no foreshore or (b) a shore enclosure with a foreshore extending to deep water surrounded by a net structure or (c) a bay or loch enclosure with an embankment or net structure only at the entrance.

Fish PensFish Pens

The design of pens may depend upon the characteristics of water bodies. The water bodies for pens may be categorized by two ways -

Category - I:

Narrow rivers irrigation canals - ox-bow lakes: A part of this type of pen can be divided by a number of connective sections by erecting portion of fencing across the narrow water bodies. Thus one or several pens are arranged in a series. These types of pen culture are preferred in various parts of the world, especially those at Hitsuishi, Matsumigaru and Ieshima in Japan and those at Flogoykgolpo and Bjordal and the Osland enclosures in Norway, Chilka lake in India.

Category - II:

The Shallow Reservoirs Margins or Tanks: In this type pens are four walled. This may be constructed according to the depth of the water bodies i.e; In Indonesia

Shape, size and design of the pens:

  • On the basis of the pen culture it may be circular, square, and rectangular in shape depending upon the harvesting.

  • The size of pens depends upon a number of physical factors such as location, water depth and biotic parameters. Large cages of 200m3 or above may constructed for pen culture.

  • The height of the pens depends upon the water level during entire culture period. The height also depends upon the jumping behaviour of cultured species. The height of pen may be at least 50cm. But about 30cm of the cages are fixed into the bottom to keep the pen wall secured.

Materials Used for Pens:

  1. Screen : The screen materials used for pen should be:

  • Small meshed to prevent the escape of fry and fingerlings

  • Resistant to long exposure in sun and water

  • Steady enough to resist current, wind action and wave action

  • Resists the attack of crabs and other animals

  • Cheap and easily available, easy to handle

  • The screens are usually made of split bamboo mats in eastern countries. Metal or metal coated with resin, nylon or HDPE, even rubber are used in western countries and Japan.

  1. Supporting Structures :

  • Matured and well seasoned bamboo are generally used as supporting materials, relatively in shallow waters.

  • Other supporting materials like floats and heavy sinkers like stones are used as supporting materials

Types of Pens:

  1. Bamboo Screen Pens - This is the simplest type of pen made with fixed bamboo poles in the bottom soil of water bodies, surrounded with fine meshed netting materials. Bamboo screen fencing is suitable in narrow and shallow rivers, flooded fields and other very shallow water bodies.

  2. Monofilament Cloth Fencing Pens - These types of pens are surrounded by monofilament netting material with required size. The screen wall is arranged just like a fry net.

Advantages of Pen Culture:

  • The management cost in pen culture is low

  • Relatively simple and cheap technique

  • Construction cost of pens is very low.

  • Intensive utilization of space

  • Safety from predators

  • Suitability for culturing many varied species

  • Ease of harvest

  • The flexibility of size and economy

  • Availability of natural food and exchange of materials with the bottom


  • High demand of oxygen and water flow

  • Dependence on artificial feed

  • Food losses

  • Pollution

  • Rapid spread of diseases

  • Risk of theft

  • Conflict with multiple use of natural waters


  • Pen culture is experimentally conducted in kalli backwaters. The net production is about 250kg/ha/year of Penaeus monodon. Similar experiments are also done in Chilka Lake with average production in three months - 100kg/ha with 50% survivality.

  • In Kakinada calm waters pen culture is conducted in submerged conditions @ 100 individuals/m2 with monthly yield of 385kg/ha (survival rate - 88%). Pens are also used in nursery pond production of carp seed.

  • In Howrah and South 24 Parganas the culture of ornamental fish is done in pens constructed in ponds or in irrigational canals. Fry stages to grow out are sometimes cultured in that manner. Some reports say that experimental culture of catla, mrigal and rohu with 3:1:4 ratios may yield upto 4t/ha/6 months.

Seafood - Fish - Crustacea

Contact | Terms of Use | Article Submission Terms | Advertising | Fish Supplier Registration | Equipment Supplier Registration
© 2017 Aquafind All Rights Reserved