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Natural calamities


Jitendra Kumar1, Archit Shukla4, Neeraj Pathak2, Ramesh Kumar Tripathi3, Saurabh Dubey1



1 College of Fisheries, Mangalore, 2 College of Fisheries, Veraval, 3Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, 4College of Fisheries, Ludhiana, Punjab


What are natural calamities?

A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard - (e.g. flood, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake, or landslide) that affects the environment, and leads to financial, environmental and/or human losses.

The World is always changing.

Natural disasters are changes which are so great they may cause damage to the shape of the land or to the lives of people and other living things.

Great changes happen deep inside the Earth and on its surface. The changes on the outer part of the Earth happen because of different kinds of weather.


What are Natural Disasters?

Volcanic eruption, Earthquake, Cyclone or Hurricane, Monsoons, Avalanche, Flood, Drought, Forest fire or Bushfire, Tsunami and Electrical storms etc.


Volcanoes

A volcanic eruption is the spurting out of gases and hot lava from an opening in the Earth's crust.

Pressure from deep inside the Earth forces ash, gas and molten rock to the surface.

A volcano is a mountain or hill formed by the accumulation of magma or molten rock

Volcanoes are hazardous to wildlife and humans alike

Effects

It causes

Volcanic Gases, Landslides, Lahars, Ash Fall


Earthquake

An earthquake is a violent shaking of the ground. Sometimes it is so strong that the ground splits apart.

When parts of the earth, called plates, move against each other giant shock waves move upwards towards the surface causing the earthquake.

Effects

Earthquakes release an incredible amount of energy and are able to destroy bridges, buildings, and even entire cities in just a few minutes.

Cyclone, Hurricane, Tornado or Typhoon

A Cyclone is a fierce storm with storm winds that spin around it in a giant circle. During a cyclone trees can be uprooted, buildings can be destroyed and cars can be overturned.

Effects

Hurricanes can combine the effects of other natural disasters, proving especially destructive


Monsoon

The monsoon is a wind current in Southern Asia, blowing northeast during the summer and southwest during the winter.

During the summer, the monsoon brings heavy rains to southern Asia and Africa, while in the winter it causes the drier seasons.

Effects of Monsoons

The effects of the winter monsoons are very different from the summer monsoons.

During winter monsoons, the wind blows from the land to ocean, while in the summer it is the opposite.

This can cause major climate changes throughout the entire world, depending on the location.


Avalanche

An Avalanche is a movement of snow, ice and rock down a mountainside. Avalanches happen very suddenly and can move as fast as a racing car up to 124 mph.

Avalanches can be caused by –

Snow melting quickly, snow freezing, melting then freezing again, someone skiing a loud noise or an earth tremor.


Flood

A flood is caused by an overflow of water which covers the land that is usually dry.

Floods are caused by heavy rain or by snow melting and the rivers burst their banks and overflow.

Costal floods are caused by high tides, a rise in sea level, storm waves or tsunami (earthquakes under the sea).

Effects

Floods make an enormous impact on the environment and society.

Floods destroy drainage systems in cities, causing raw sewage to spill out into bodies of water.

This can lead to catastrophic effects on the environment

Floods cause significant amounts of erosion to coasts, leading to more frequent flooding if not repaired.

Drought

A drought is the lack of rain for a long time.

In 1968 a drought began in Africa. Children born during this year were five years old before rain fell again.

Effect

  • Drought can weaken an ecosystem by stressing plant and animal resources.

  • Flora and fauna not able to find adequate resources are more vulnerable to predation and disease

  • Dry conditions can increase not just the number but the severity of fires

  • Drought, of itself, is a devastating event, leading to crop loss and possible topsoil loss


Forest Fire or Bushfire

Fires can burn out of control in areas of forest or bush land. Fires are caused by lightning, sparks of electricity or careless people. Wind may blow a bushfire to areas where people live.

Effects

Fire effects are the physical, chemical, and biological impacts of fire on ecosystem resources and the environment. abiotic effects of fire include its role in changing air quality, water quality, soil properties, and nutrient cycling.

Biotic effects include altering vegetation and related impacts on wildlife.


Tsunami

A tsunami is a series of tremendous waves generated by a massive underwater disturbance.

Tsunamis can move at speeds as high as 500 miles per hour.

Effects

Tsunamis are capable of causing a substantial amount of damage.

One tsunami can destroy an entire coastal village and remove all the sand from a beach and sand that took hundreds of years to accumulate.


Electrical storms

Electrical storms are composed of lightning and thunder, typically accompanied by heavy precipitation.

Each storm forms in large cumulonimbus clouds (thunderheads) stretching one to five miles in diameter with a height of 25,000 feet.

Effects

Electrical storms are an amazing phenomenon.

it is not considered a very dangerous natural disaster.

It is a very isolated event as each lightning strike only affects a minimal area and rarely kills or injures humans and animals.

Lightning does contain a significant amount of power, reaching temperatures hotter than the surface of the sun, and creating shockwaves that we hear as thunder.


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