Ramesh Kumar Tripathi3,
of Fisheries, Mangalore, 2 College
of Fisheries, Veraval, 3Central
Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, 4College
of Fisheries, Ludhiana,
are natural calamities?
is the effect of a natural hazard - (e.g. flood, tornado, hurricane,
volcanic eruption, earthquake, or landslide) that affects the
environment, and leads to financial, environmental and/or human
World is always changing.
disasters are changes which are so great they may cause damage to the
shape of the land or to the lives of people and other living things.
changes happen deep inside the Earth and on its surface. The changes
on the outer part of the Earth happen because of different kinds of
are Natural Disasters?
eruption, Earthquake, Cyclone or Hurricane, Monsoons, Avalanche,
Flood, Drought, Forest fire or Bushfire, Tsunami and Electrical
volcanic eruption is the spurting out of gases and hot lava from an
opening in the Earth's crust.
from deep inside the Earth forces ash, gas and molten rock to the
A volcano is a
mountain or hill formed by the accumulation of magma or molten rock
hazardous to wildlife and humans alike
Landslides, Lahars, Ash Fall
earthquake is a violent shaking of the ground. Sometimes it is so
strong that the ground splits apart.
parts of the earth, called plates, move against each other giant
shock waves move upwards towards the surface causing the earthquake.
an incredible amount of energy and are able to destroy bridges,
buildings, and even entire cities in just a few minutes.
Hurricane, Tornado or Typhoon
Cyclone is a fierce storm with storm winds that spin around it in a
giant circle. During a cyclone trees can be uprooted, buildings can
be destroyed and cars can be overturned.
combine the effects of other natural disasters, proving especially
The monsoon is a
wind current in Southern Asia, blowing northeast during the summer
and southwest during the winter.
During the summer,
the monsoon brings heavy rains to southern Asia and Africa, while in
the winter it causes the drier seasons.
The effects of the
winter monsoons are very different from the summer monsoons.
monsoons, the wind blows from the land to ocean, while in the summer
it is the opposite.
This can cause major
climate changes throughout the entire world, depending on the
Avalanche is a movement of snow, ice and rock down a mountainside.
Avalanches happen very suddenly and can move as fast as a racing car
up to 124 mph.
can be caused by –
melting quickly, snow freezing, melting then freezing again, someone
skiing a loud noise or an earth tremor.
flood is caused by an overflow of water which covers the land that is
are caused by heavy rain or by snow melting and the rivers burst
their banks and overflow.
floods are caused by high tides, a rise in sea level, storm waves or
tsunami (earthquakes under the sea).
Floods make an
enormous impact on the environment and society.
drainage systems in cities, causing raw sewage to spill out into
bodies of water.
This can lead to
catastrophic effects on the environment
significant amounts of erosion to coasts, leading to more frequent
flooding if not repaired.
drought is the lack of rain for a long time.
1968 a drought began in Africa. Children born during this year were
five years old before rain fell again.
Drought can weaken
an ecosystem by stressing plant and animal resources.
Flora and fauna not
able to find adequate resources are more vulnerable to predation and
Dry conditions can
increase not just the number but the severity of fires
Drought, of itself,
is a devastating event, leading to crop loss and possible topsoil
Fire or Bushfire
can burn out of control in areas of forest or bush land. Fires are
caused by lightning, sparks of electricity or careless people. Wind
may blow a bushfire to areas where people live.
are the physical, chemical, and biological impacts of fire on
ecosystem resources and the environment. abiotic effects of fire
include its role in changing air
and nutrient cycling.
include altering vegetation
and related impacts on wildlife.
A tsunami is a
series of tremendous waves generated by a massive underwater
Tsunamis can move at
speeds as high as 500 miles per hour.
Tsunamis are capable
of causing a substantial amount of damage.
One tsunami can
destroy an entire coastal village and remove all the sand from a
beach and sand that took hundreds of years to accumulate.
are composed of lightning and thunder, typically accompanied by heavy
Each storm forms in
large cumulonimbus clouds (thunderheads) stretching one to five miles
in diameter with a height of 25,000 feet.
are an amazing phenomenon.
it is not considered
a very dangerous natural disaster.
It is a very
isolated event as each lightning strike only affects a minimal area
and rarely kills or injures humans and animals.
contain a significant amount of power, reaching temperatures hotter
than the surface of the sun, and creating shockwaves that we hear as
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