Principles of Fishery Resource Management
Renjith R. K.1,
Institute of Fisheries Education,Mumbai
of Fishery Science, Pantanagar
Fish and fisheries
is an important part of societies, because of its contribution to
economic and social health and well being in many countries and
areas. Marine living resources are by no means inexhaustible,
although some of them are extremely rich. In India, the production of
marine fish increased by about 5.5 times in 55 years, from 0.5
million tons in 1948 to 2.7 m t in 2003. To sustain marine fish
production, a consistent Fisheries management policy and
implementation of management has to be adopted.
management is a dynamic resource allocation process where ecological,
economic and institutional resources of a fisheries exploitation
system are distributed with value to the society as the overall goal
(Silvestre and Pauly, 1997).
is an important part of any development process. Development strategy
should incorporate an effective management plan which able to
establish the best relationship, suggest that initially when effort
increases, the yield also increases, Later increase is slow compared
to that of effort, continuous decrease in yield per unit area.
Further fishery will progress and reach the maximum yield, until
management intervention. It will progress further and reach point
where yield is equal to that of cost of fishery. It is the only
situation where need of management is required and compensation is
given by government in the form of aids and subsidies and makes
attempt to continue profitability. When all the possibilities are
exhausted the fishery will not reach beyond that point when only
running cost like; i.e. cost of crew, fuel is met with no fish yield
and government aids (Gulland et. al). Once Fishery arise arising at
this stage of decision it's clear that the crisis cannot be solved
until the use of strict action. It is easier to control the expansion in
early development phase than to reduce exploitation when crisis
fisheries in India remained in a pre-developed phase till 1962
(pre-mechanization period; annual production: <0.8 m t) and on a
prolonged growth phase till 1988 (mechanization period; increase in
the number and efficiency of fishing vessels; annual production: 0.8
to 1.8 m t); this is followed by the fully exploited phase, which
lasted for 15 years till 2003 (exploitation of underexploited coastal
areas and further increase in effort; annual production: 1.8 to 2.6 m
anchovy fishery was one of the largest fishery during boom years. In
1953 the first Fish meal was developed. In nine years, Peru became
number one Fishing nation of the world. Nearly 1700 Purse seines
exploited seven month fishing season. In 1970 sustainable yield was
estimated around 9.5 Million tones.
of Norwegian and Icelandic herring fisheries in 1969, Peru got more
cash and allowed to harvest 12.4million tones. In following year 10.5
million tones, In 1972, 10.5 Million tones. In 1972 El-Nino and
overfishing for a prolonged period led to collapse. It has never
development of fishery over the time scale categorized as (Csirke et.
Principle of Management of Fishery resources vary according to Phase
of Fishery. If fishery is in the Predevelopment Phase it has to
promote. When in the growth or fully exploitation phase, fishery
should be maintained. If it is in the overexploitation phase, attempt
should make to recover the fishery.
of underdeveloped fishery:
has different constituents are usually in various stages of
development. Indian fisheries which is mainly operated in less than
50 M depth is in fully exploitation phase, a few specific fishery
like myctophid fishes, Oceanic Tuna, deep-sea Prawn, Bulls eye,
remain unexploited. The management for the stock should aim at
creating proper fishing opportunities; decrease the pressure of most
of exploited fisheries. There should be greater focus on investment
in the form of fishing gear, vessel which will be best suited for
exploiting the identified stock.
of Developed fishery:
for maintenance of developed fishery is different than that of
promoting an underdeveloped fishery. Before going to take management
action, it is necessary to co collect the information the fish stock
and state of fisher folk, which help to decision making procedure, as
whether to restrict or promote the fishery. In case of restriction
proper methods restriction have to identify and adapt. Throughout the
stage views of the stock in the future are more important than its
current status. Socioeconomics of the fisher folk have to be given
priority at this stage.
of depleted fishery:
For rebuilding of
depleted fisheries it is necessary to know the cause of depletion. It may
be environmental or fishing. If it is fishing, then corrective steps
like a fishing ban or mesh size regulation have to be used. Substitute
employment opportunities should be opened up for the fisher folk well
before imposing a ban.
Csirke, J. 1984.
Report of the Working Group on Fisheries Management Implications and
Interactions. FAO Fish. Rep., 291, 67-90.
Devaraj, M. and E.
Vivekanandan. 1999. Marine fisheries of India: challenges and opportunities.
Curr. Sci., 76, 315-332.
Gulland, J.A. 1972.
Some notes on the demersal resources of southeast Asia. Indo-Pacific
Fish. Counc., 13, 51-60.
2004. Teaching Not To F(in)ish!? : A Constructivist Perspective on
Reinventing a Responsible Marine Fisheries Extension System.
Silvestre, G. and D.
Pauly. 1997. Management of tropical coastal fisheries in Asia: an
overview of key challenges and opportunities. In: Status and
Management of Tropical Coastal Fisheries in Asia (G. Silvestre and D.
Pauly, eds.). ICLARM Conf. Proc., 53, 8-25.
2004. Fisheries management techniques In Technical notes for the
winter school on Ecosystem based management of marine fisheries held
at CMFRI, 2004 (Mohammed,K.S. ed.): 98-109.
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