Caused By Protozoan In Fish And Its Prevention
Maqsood*, Prabjeet Singh, Munir Hassan Samoon, Gohar Bilal Wani and
Faculty of Fisheries, Sher-e-Kashmir University of
Agricultural Science and Technology-Kashmir, India.
*Corresponding author E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Protozoan Diseases found in Fish
caused by the infection of Ichthyophthirius
as Ich, Ick, or white spot disease
most common disease in home aquarium.
spot disease is caused by a protozoa called Ichthyophthirius
are three phases to the life cycle of this protozoa.
is important to know its life cycle because white spot (Ich) is
susceptible to treatment at only one stage of the life cycle.
is embedded in the skin or gills of the fish, causing irritation
(with the fish showing signs of irritation) and the appearance of
small white nodules.
the parasite grows it feeds on red blood cells and skin cells.
After a few days it
bores itself out of the fish and falls to the bottom of the
a host is not found within 2 to 3 days, the parasite dies.
a host is found the whole cycle begins anew.
three phases take about 4 weeks at 70° F but only 5 days at 80° F.
For this reason it
is recommended that the aquarium water be raised to about 80° for
the duration of the treatment..
the fish can stand it, raise the temperature even higher up to 85°.
falling to the bottom, the adult parasite forms into a cyst with
rapid cell divisions occurring
the cyst phase, about 1000 free swimming young comes out and looking
for a host.
specks on the body/fins.
breathing (ich invades the gills),
such as unusual swimming patterns, refusing all food etc.
free swimming phase is the best time to treat with chemicals.
the aquarium temperature to 80° F will greatly shorten the time for
the free swimming phase to occur.
drug of choice is quinine hydrochloride at 30 mg per liter.
sulphate can be used if the hydrochloride is not available.
aquarists like to use malachite green, but it tends to stain the
plastic and silicone in the aquarium. Most commercial remedies
contain malachite green and/or copper, which are both effective.
caused by the infection of Trichodinia
in shape, with a band of cilia around the circumference.
40 - 60 microns in diameter, & have a rotating movement.
have a disc that has many teeth, which they use to "hook"
themselves onto a host.
The parasites most
frequently attack the gills of the infected fish, which causes in
heavy infestations, great difficulty in breathing, so that the they
come to the surface in a desperate attempt to get sufficient oxygen.
and scratching against any suitable object
at the surface, or just stationary "hanging" at the
Fins often become clamped or folded.
The body will manifest darker colours than normal.
Gill examination will show large numbers of the organisms , & an
excess of mucus.
(smear): A pale bluish slime is often noticed which covers the skin,
this is typically blotchy in nature.
0.2-0.25 ppm .but it is badly tolerated by many of the Tetras, &
especially so, by scaleless fish such as Elephant noses &
In a 1% solution for about 30 minutes, this repeated for a couple of
250 ppm for about an hour, or 100 ppm for 3 hours. Long term baths
Acriflavin: Use at
50 ppm as a bath for about 2-4 days.
blue: 100 ppm as a bath 2-4 days
caused by the infection of Ichthyobodo
is a minute flagellate with 3-4 flagella.
affects both the skin and gills of fish.
suffering infestations exhibit the classic symptoms of lethargy,
clamped fins, rubbing and flashing and the skin can take on a grey
cloudiness on skin.
best treatment is with copper at 0.2 mg per liter (0.2 ppm) to be
repeated once in a few days if necessary.
may be used instead at 0.2% solution (1 ml per liter). As
acriflavine can possibly sterilize fish and copper can lead to
poisoning, the water should be gradually changed after a cure has
bath 3% solution
the water temperature to 80° - 83° F for a few days has also been
Disease caused by the infection of Chilodonella
is classified as the most dangerous of the Protozoan parasites and
can cause mass mortalities especially in overstocked ponds and
is between 40-60 microns in diameter.
reproduces itself by transverse fission, and the adult has a heart
of the skin, especially between the head and dorsal fin.
are also attacked and can be totally destroyed, quickly killing the
fish may show classic signs of flashing and rubbing, may hold their
fins clamped against their body and appear listless.
will also hang at the pond surface and gasp for air in severe
treatments include Malachite Green
baths at 3%.
Seafood — Fish — Crustacea
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