(Hamilton, 1822) A candidate species of freshwater ornamental fish
trade - An update
Scholar, Faculty of Bioscience, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam,
Tropical fresh water
fishes contribute 80-90% of the world market, the rest being
supported by tropical marine and brackish water species. India
contributes only around 0.5% of world exports of ornamental fishes.
India exported ornamental fishes worth about 554 lakh rupees during
2009-2010, it includes 85% wild catch and 15% farmed varieties of
exotic fishes. Among 104 ornamental fishes in the Western Ghats, 10
species including rosy barb have already secured a position in the
national and international market as ornamental fish (Kurup et
Classification: Kingdom: Animalia
(F. Hamilton, 1822)
(F. Hamilton, 1822)
(F. Hamilton, 1822)
(F. Hamilton, 1822)
(Datta Munshi & Srivastava 1988)
Meegaskumbura & Maduwage 2012)
Rosy barb or Red barb
Taxonomic Group: P.
was included in the 'Puntius conchonius Group', characterised by
barbels absent; maxillary barbels minute or absent; possession of a
stiff, serrated last un branched dorsal-fin ray; presence of a black
blotch on the caudal peduncle, and frequently, black blotches, spots
or bars on the side of the body; infra orbital 3 deep and partially
overlapping the pre operculum. The species included in this group
ater, P. bandula, P. cumingii, P. didi, P. erythromycter, P. gelius,
P. khugae, P. macrogramma, P. manipurensis, P. meingangbii, P.
nankyweensis, P. nigripinnis, P. nigrofasciatus, P. padamya, P.
phutunio, P. punctatus, P. reval, P. shalynius, P. stoliczkanus, P.
thelys, P. tiantian, P. ticto, P. melanomaculata and P. pookodensis.
all of these were moved to the new genus Pethia
by Pethiyagoda et
meingangbii, P. muvattupuzhaensis, P. narayani, P.ornatus, P. setnai
and P. yuensis
may also be placed into this genus eventually (Pethiyagoda, 2012).
Concerned (IUCN, 2010)
Barbs are found in lakes and fast flowing waters in subtropical parts
of Asia. They are native to India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and
Afghanistan. Rosy Barbs have also been introduced in Singapore,
Australia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Columbia. Because they are one of
the hardiest barbs, they are quite easy to care for in captivity.
in numerous habitat-types, from flowing hill streams and tributaries
of rivers to stiller waters such as lakes, ponds, and swamps. Rosy
Barbs natively live in lakes and fast flowing water in
a subtropical climate.
Populations exhibit a degree of variation depending on locality. It
is one of the hardiest of the barbs. They prefer water conditions
with a 6.5 pH, a water hardness of 10 dGH, and a temperature range of
64–72 °F (18–22 °C).
colour becomes bolder during their mating periods. Females remain
smaller and plumper, while males get bigger but slimmer. Females lack
the brighter red coloration of the males, usually being more yellow,
olive, or gold. Males have a brighter red coloration as opposed to
the females that look more gold or silver than red. Their color
becomes bolder during their mating periods. The male has a brighter
pinkish color and the female is slightly more plump. Pethia
male colour differentiation in their fins, the males have black
around the edge of the fins and the female has none. Selective
breeding has produced various ornamental strains including
long-finned, 'veil-tail', 'super red', 'neon', and 'golden' forms.
Standard length :
81.2 % TL
Fork length : 90.6
Pre-anal length :
57.8 % TL
Pre-dorsal length :
42.8 % TL
Pre-pelvic length :
37.4 % TL
length : 17.9 % TL
Body depth : 34.8 %
Head length : 21.1
Eye diameter : 29.8
length : 29.8 % HL
Fin : iii-7-8
Anal Fin : ii- iii
Pectoral Fin : i -
Ventral Fin : I - 8
Age and Growth:
Lifespan of up to 5 years.
It attains a length of 14 cm and matures at 6 cm. The
length weight relationship value of b showed deviation from cube law
throughout the year as negative allometric growth (b < 3) was
Food and Feeding:
Barbs are omnivorous and opportunistic eaters. Their diet should
consist of plant matter, insects, worms, crustaceans, flakes,
pellets, and frozen foods. They will eat live foods as long as they
are small enough, such as insects, worms, or crustaceans.
spawner that tolerate low water temperatures. Fish mature at 4-6 cm
sex ratio observed for the rosy barb was 1:2 (female: male). They are
multiple spawners and their ovaries contain oocytes in various sizes
and at stages. They are egg-scattering with no parental care.
Propagation: In more mature individuals the sex can be determined
by the colour of the animal. Males being a bright pink to red and
females being gold to beige colour. When the female is ready
to spawn, it will appear swollen belly with eggs. The males will
circle and chase the females, repeatedly nudging her head and belly
area. Spawning usually occurs in the early morning, and lasts several
hours resulting in several hundred eggs. Once the females eggs are
fertilized, she will scatter the hundreds of eggs into substrate, on
a plant or decoration, or simply expel them into the open water. Eggs
are usually deposited in groups of plants, and the pair will attempt
to eat any that they are able to locate. The young hatch out in 24 to
36 hours, depending on water temperature. For breeding need one male
and two females. Once ready to breed, the female will change colour
and become more vibrant. Neither parents care for the eggs after
spawning, and will eat them if not separated from the tank
immediately. The remaining eggs will hatch within 30 hours of being
planted. In india, captive breeding technology for rosy barb have
already standardised by Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture.
Bromage, N.R., Randal, C., and Rana, K. 1998. The Reproductive
Biology of the Rosy barb (Puntius
Sex differentiation and Gametogenesis. M.S. Çelikkale, I. Okumu, E.
Düzgüne, and C.P. Mutlu (Eds.), Proceedings of the First
International Symposium on Fisheries and Ecology, Fisheco 98,
Iqbal Mir and Farooq Ahmad Mir.2012. Length-Weight Relationship and
Condition Factor of Rosy Barb, Puntius
(Hamilton, 1822) from River Jhelum in Kashmir Valley, India. Advances
in Biological Research 6 (5): 186-190, 2012
M. B., Harikrishnan, M and Renjithkumar. 2012. Breeding, farming anf
trade of ornamental fishes in india- prospects and challenges.
Ornamentals Kerala, Department of fisheries, Government of Kerala.
February 11-12, Cochin, India.
R., M. Meegaskumbura, and K. Maduwage, 2012 - A synopsis of the South
Asian fishes referred to Puntius
(Pisces: Cyprinidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters
L. and Horvath L. 1993. Propagation System of Rosy Barb, Barbus,
for Production of Stripped Gametes. Godollo, University of
Agricultural Sciences Institute of Animal Husbandry, Hungary., 1-13.
Seafood — Fish — Crustacea
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