STATUS OF MARINE FISH SEED PRODUCTION IN WORLD WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE
semester of M.F.Sc,
Name of the assignment
Status of finfish culture
Coastal fish farm developement
Candidate spp. for culture
Napoleon Wrasse and Coral Trout
remains a growing, vibrant and important production sector for high
protein food. The reported global production of food fish from
aquaculture, including finfishes, crustaceans, molluscs and other
aquatic animals for human consumption, reached 52.5 million tonnes in
2008. The contribution of aquaculture to the total production of
capture fisheries and aquaculture continued to grow, rising from 34.5
percent in 2006 to 36.9 percent in 2008. In the period 1970-2008,
the production of food fish from aquaculture increased at an average
annual rate of 8.3 percent, while the world population grew at an
average of 1.6 percent per year. The combined result of development
in aquaculture worldwide and the expansion in global population is
that the average annual per capita supply of food fish from
aquaculture for human consumption has increased by ten times, from
0.7 kg in 1970 to 7.8 kg in 2008, at an average rate of 6.6 percent
from aquaculture is mostly destined for human consumption. Globally,
aquaculture accounted for 45.7 percent of the world's fish food
production for human consumption in 2008, up from 42.6 percent in
2006. In China the world's largest aquaculture producer, 80.2 percent
of fish food consumed in 2008 was derived from aquaculture, up from
23.6 percent in 1970. Aquaculture production supplied the rest of the
world with 26.7 percent of its food fish, up from 4.8 percent in
1970. Despite the long tradition of aquaculture practices in a few
countries over many centuries, aquaculture in the global context is a
young food production sector that has grown rapidly in the last 50
years or so. World aquaculture output has increased substantially,
from less than 1 million tonnes of annual production in 1950 to the
52.5 million tonnes reported for 2008, increasing at three times the
rate of world meat production (2.7 percent from poultry and livestock
together) in the same period. In contrast to world capture fisheries
production, which has almost stopped growing since the mid-1980s, the
aquaculture sector maintained an average annual growth rate of 8.3
percent worldwide (or 6.5 percent excluding China) between 1970 and
2008. The annual growth rate in world aquaculture production between
2006 and 2008 was 5.3 percent in volume terms. The growth rate in the
rest of the world (6.4 percent) from 2006 to 2008 was higher than
that for China (4.7 percent).
has a long coastline of 8,129 km extending over nine maritime states
and the island EEZ area of 2.02 million km2
and a shelf of 0.512 million km2
that makes it possible for one of the richest multispecies fisheries
in the world. In addition to the vast coastline, it has 8.5 million
ha of derelict inland saline area. But yet India's mariculture
progress has been very slow. The slow progress is due to the collapse
of the shrimp farming industry because of environmental concern and
disease problems. Although the present attention is towards
diversification of fish species other than shrimp, the commercial
venture are constrained due to unreliable wild seeds and lack of
technology for commercial marine finfish hatchery seed production.
fin-fishes seed production and farming has been well developed in the
Asia-Pacific Region and is expanding very fast. Over the last twenty
years, marine finfish aquaculture, predominant involved are China,
Indonesia, Taiwan Province of China, Japan, Philippines, Republic of
Korea & Vietnam. A large number of finfish species are farmed in
cages and yet there is a significant reliance on wild caught young
ones for farming of groupers. The main species farmed in brackish
water are barramundi or Asian sea-bass (Lates
and milk fish (Chanos
In inshore marine cage farming, the major farmed species include
spp., groupers (Epinephilus
and cobia (Rachycentron
The Japanese amberjack Seriola
contributes upto 17% of marine production in Japan amounting to
140,000-160,000 t annum since 1980's. Seabreams are the mainstay of
finfish mariculture production.
culture has been expanding rapidly in Asia, driven by high prices in
live fish markets of Hong-Kong & China. It is mainly dependent on
wild collected seed. Cobia, a species of much interest for tropical
marine finfish farming aquaculture, has become a global commodity in
the same way as salmon has become a global commodity in temperate
aquaculture. Most production currently comes from China & Taiwan
Province of China and totaled around 20,000 tonnes in 2003.
Production of this fast growing spp.is yet to expand rapidly in
Asia. Milk fish is traditionally cultured in the Philippines. Indonesia
is a major producer of seed & contributes to small scale
in Fisheries 2nd in Aquaculture
of Fisheries to GDP (%)
to Agril. GDP (%)
capita fish availability (Kg.)
Export earnings (Rs. In Crore)
in sector (million)
India marine finfish aquaculture is only an emerging sector & the
most common cultivable marine finfishes include the Siganus
L, calcarifer, Epinephilus spp.
sea breams and cobia. Currently their mariculture is almost entirely
supported from the seed collected from the wild, expect for seabass.
of the milestones in the seed production of marine finfishes was the
development and hatchery technology for commercial seed production of
seabass. Protocols for captive broodstock development, induced
maturation, breeding and larval rearing have been standardized. The
success obtained by CIBA and the mass production of seed by Rajiv
Gandhi Centre for Aquaculture in Tamil Nadu set up by MPEDA can lead
to commercial farming of sea bass in the country.
milestone in marine finfish breeding is the successful brood stock
development of the grouper (Epinephilus
in captivity. The grouper brood stock was developed by rearing
fingerling in the size range 90-200 mm collected from wild. These
were developed into healthy female brood stock by giving them feed
enriched with vitamins & minerals. Simultaneously a few of them
were administered male hormone methyl testosterone for sex reversal
to males. Mature spermiating males were developed by this technique.
However, successful commercial level seed production methodologies
for groupers still remain to be developed & standardized.
number of experiments on culture of marine/brackishwater finfishes
were done by CMFRI since 1980's. Significant achievements were made
in the coastal pond culture of milkfish & grey mullets at
Mandapam, Tuticorin, Madars, Calicut, Narkkal and Mangalore by CMFRI
from 1970's. Pen culture experiment carried out at Mandapam and
Tuticorin with milkfish & grey mullets at a stocking density of
50,000/ha yielded 400 to 800 kg per ha. Cage culture of rabbit fish (
canaliculatus , S. javas) ;
tauvina, E. hexagonatus) and
were done at Mandapam. Experiments conducted on the cage culture of
fixed net cages at Mandapam.
lack of commercial scale availability of hatchery produced seed is
the major bottleneck for any large scale venture of marine finfish
farming. The availability of seeds from wild is often unpredictable &
hence farming based on wild collected seed not be a sustainable
venture. Hence the development & standardization of seed
production for few spp. belonging to groupers, siganids, breams &
cobia should receive research priority. It is felt that the
development of commercial hatcheries for ready supply of seed is the
primary step for the development & expansion of marine finfish
farming in India. The lack of frontline demonstration of large scale
farming systems like open sea/coastal cage farming is the another
constraint in this sector. For the 1st
time in India a marine cage was successfully launched & operated
at Visakhapatnam, in the east coast of India by CMFRI. Recently five
cages for brood stock development of marine finfishes were installed
at Mandapam. It is felt that development of broodstocks in cage,
hatchery production protocols of high value finfish such as grouper &
cobia and sea cage farming ventures will pave the way for India to
develop commercial level marine finfish farming in the immediate
of finfish culture:
finfish culture which has been an established practice in various
parts of India is now undergoing rapid development in order to (i)
utilize the extensive areas which are now unutilized but which have
possibilities for aquaculture development (ii) to increase the
production of animal protein to meet the need of fast growing
population (iii) to develop special market oriented products for
export & consequently for earning foreign exchange (iv) creating
employment opportunities (Pillai, 1972; Qasim, 1975; Silas 1976).
Although traditional culture of marine finfishes has been practiced
in estuarine & coastal areas of Kerala, Goa & West Bengal,
the production rate was not high. However, traditional methods of
farming, suitably modified have shown promising results in certain
maritime states. Potential mariculture sites, especially for open sea
cage fish farming has been identified at Andaman Sea, northeastern
arm of Indian Ocean, bounded on the west by the Andaman & Nicobar
its coral lagoons, and protected deep water bays, its provides
optimum environmental conditions for finfish farming using sea-cages.
Commercial marine fish hatchery has already been established near
Port Blair at Andaman & is in the process of initiating finfish
seed (sea-bass & grouper) production for its grow-out operation
in sea cages. When operational, this will be the 1st
of its kind commercial marine fish farming venture in India. The
fuscoguttaus, E. Polyphekadion, E. coioides
etc., are considered potential candidates for commercial farming of
fish farm development :
at Mandapam, the fish farm has been reconstructed & a total
number of 28 ponds spread over the total area of 15 ha have been
developed for experimental work on finfish farming. The bunds of the
ponds were turfed with locally available grass to keep the bund
intact (Bensam, 1985). At Tuticorin, a total area of 2.5 ha has
been developed, at Karapad into 12 ponds for the culture of
finfishes, prawns & crabs during 1972. At Madras, a total extent
of 93 acres of salt water area, at Muttukkadu about 35 km south of
Madras was acquired during 1982, from the Govt. of Tamil Nadu. Of
this, an area of 13 ha has been developed into ponds for experimental
programmes by the CMFRI. At Calicut, a total number of 13
polyethylene lined ponds covering a water spread area of 0.4 ha has
been developed (Lazarus & Nandakumar , 1987). At Kakdwip, &
Bokhali in West Bengal & Puri in Orissa, the fish farm
construction was made by CMFRI (CIFRI, Reports, 1962). At Kakinada,
the experimental fish farm was developed by the CIFE (CIFE, Reports,
1978). The Tamil Nadu State Fisheries Department has developed the
brackish water fish farm at Santhome, Madras (Evangeline, 1968).
following are some candidate spp. that are culturable in potential
areas of India:
is one of the most widely distributed food fishes in the world
(McDonough et al., 2003). In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the fish, locally known as Biah or Wagena, is considered as one of the most
highly demanded fish. However, it was recently recognized that the
landings of this species have drastically decreased and its presence
in the local fish markets became rare (MAF, 2003). In captivity, grey
mullets do not spawn spontaneously and that could be achieved
successfully by hormone administration (Lee and Tamaru, 1988,
El-Gharabawy and Assem, 2006).
eurytharmic, predominately detritus feeders.
are farmed in tropical & subtropical waters of the world.
period are Nov-Jan.
16 lakh to 72 lakhs in the fishes of total length size ranges 410 mm
to 662 mm
grey mullet (Mugil
cephalus, Liza macrolepis, L. tade & L.parsia)
are polycultured with other compatible spp. of fish & shrimps.
Under extensive brackish water pond culture conditions the production
average 2.0-2.5 tonnes/ha/year during 8-9 months grow-out period.
Intensive farming restricted due to non-availability of hatchery
grey mullet fingerlings averaging 4 g body weight (bw) were
introduced in 2002 from Egypt and grown in indoor 40 tonne circular
concrete tanks at ACAAB. The fish were stocked in freshwater
and after an acclimation period of seven days the water salinity in
the tanks was gradually raised by 8 ppt/day until the fish were
completely acclimatised to the natural seawater salinity of Abu Al
Abyad Isalnd (55 ppt). During the grow-out period the fish were fed
floating marine fish feed (45% protein and 10% lipid). In September
2008 a number of six years old fish were selected and conditioned by
feeding with 6 mm pelleted feed supplemented with 1% fish oil (DHA
20-22%, EPA 4%) and 0.5% vitamin mix and vitamin E. In the first week
of December 63 ripe females averaging 1.03 kg with average cannulated
oocytes diameter of 427 μm, and 126 males averaging 0.83 kg with
running milt were transferred to indoor 30 tonne concrete oval shape
and 36 tonne concrete rectangular spawning tanks at a rate of 1 male
: 2 females. Clove oil (4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenol) in a dose of 0.01
ppm was used to anaesthetize the fish during transportation,
cannulation and injection processes. The selected broodstock was
acclimated to 37 ppt salinity by gradually adding freshwater over a
period of seven days.
fish were induced with carp pituitary (CP, 20mg/kg body weight),
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, 1000 IU/kg bw) and tilapia
pituitary, extracted from local tilapia stocks (TP, 20 mg/kg body
weight) administered as priming injections to four groups of females
and each was followed 24 hours later by a resolving injection of
luteinizing-hormone-releasing-hormoneanalogue (LH-RHa) at dose of 200
μg/kg bw. Spawning took place 24 hours following the resolving
hormonal injection at an average water temperature of 20.8 ± 1.08°C.
All hormonal applications were successful in inducing spawning and
females receiving carp pituitary as a priming injection achieved the
highest fecundity (257.28 eggs/g bw). This was followed by the
females injected with the priming dose of tilapia pituitary (155.34
eggs/g bw). The priming dose of HCG produced the lowest fecundity
(58.25 eggs/g body weight). Use of a combination of carp pituitary
and HCG as a priming injection improved spawning (Table 1). These
fecundities are very much below those reported elsewhere for captive
mullets (Nash and Koningsberger, 1986, El-Gharabawy and Assem, 2006).
The low fecundity values obtained in this study could be attributed
to the hyper saline conditions (55 ppt) under which the fish were
grown from the fingerling stage until they attained maturity. The
spawning season in this trial was observed to be very short extending
only for 17 days. For the aquaculture of this species to succeed, a
plan for a consistent supply of fingerlings should be developed and
thus it is recommended to study the possibility of its induction out
of the spawning season (El-Greisy and Shaheen, 2007).
) have the mainstay of finfish culture in coastal & estuarine
impoundments for centuries. In the vallis of Mediterranean lagoons (
especially in Italy), in the so called coastal 'harbour culture'
in North China, in the bheris of Gangetic estuaries in the Indian
sub-contitent, in the tambaks of Java (Indonesia) & in the
coastal fish ponds of Hawaii the grey mullet formed an important
group of culture species.
milkfish, the only species of the family Chanidae has a wide
distribution, though not to the same as grey mullet. The fish is
either monoculture or polyculture with compatible species of fish &
shrimps. Hatchery technology is not available. The wild fry of 10-15
mm size are nursery reared to 40-100 mm in two months before stocking
in grow out ponds. Several grow-out experiments have been carried out
by research centre to farm milk fish in ponds, cages and pens. Under
pond culture conditions, the farmers produce 2.5-3.0 tonnes/ha during
a grow-out period of 8-9 months. The stocking density ranges from
3000-5000 ind./ha. Some shrimp farmers use milkfish seeds in the
effluent treatment ponds.
remains a popular commodity in Indonesia and the Philippines:
production of milkfish increased from 514,666 tonnes in 2004 to
542,842 tonnes in 2005.
value of production decreased from USD 627 million to USD 552 million
over he same period representing a decrease in price from around USD
1.20 to USD 1.00 per kg.
sea-bass, family Centropomidae is a potential candidate for farming
in India, because of its fast growth rate, tolerance to wide
environmental conditions & its demand in domestic & export
markets. It is distributed along the East and South West Coast of
India. The limited seed availability restricts the culture to the
months of May-August in West Bengal. Monoculture is very rare.
Normally it is polyculture with other fish and
spp. Some farmers use the tilapia, Oreochronis
a supplementary feed during 7-12 months grow-out period. The
harvesting size is 700g-1kg. Most of the culture systems are
extensive. The farmers achieved production of about 2.2
one of the research centre (CIBA) has succeeded in the hatchery
breeding and larval rearing of sea-bass.
spp., occurs in the tropical and subtropical areas of Asia
adult sea-bass is a voracious carnivore, but juveniles are
of the major problems in the culturing them in pond is their
nature, sea-bass spawns all the year around with the peak season
ranges from 2-17 million eggs, depending upon the size of spawner.
production stayed relatively steady at 26,584 tonnes, up slightly
from 25,399 tonnes in 2004. Thailand remains the largest producer of
aquacultured barramundi. Total value of production increased slightly
from USD 65.08 million to USD 68.52 million Average price remained
steady at about USD 2.50 — 2.60 per kilogram.
Sea bass (Psammoperca
sea bass is a tropical species found in Indonesian waters, known
locally as ikan
mata kucing ('cat
eyes'). Its body shape is much like the Asian seabass although it is
darker in colour, which is why it is also known as as gelam
sea bass) on Batam-Riau Island. Sand sea bass are a much smaller,
reaching a maximum weight of 1kg. They are protandrous
hermaphrodites, maturing first asmales at around 75-100g then
changing sex with mature females appearing at around 150g. Sand sea
bass are a demersal species with a schooling habit. Although the sand
sea bass is still abundant in Indonesian waters, especially around
Batam, wild stocks are likely to come under increasing pressure as
high demand has seen its market price increase, which is likely to
lead to more intensive fishing efforts. The price of live sand sea
bass in Singapore is around S$ 15/kg. Anticipating a decline in wild
stocks, RCMD have been developing techniques to produce sand sea bass
seed as basis for supporting an alternative, farmed supply.
management and breeding
can be obtained both from wild capture and from fish on-grown in net
cages. As many as 10 fish/m3 are kept in circular fiberglass tanks of
five ton capacity, with sex ratio of 1 male : 1 female. A
flow-through water system is used during the rearing period with
around 400% water exchange per day in the broodstock tanks.
Broodstock are fed 5% of their body weight daily in fresh trash fish
and threes times per week with squid. Vitamin C and E are also given
once per week to help stimulate gonad maturation. Environmental
manipulation is also conducted to stimulate broodstock to spawn. In
RCMD, sand sea bass broodstock spawn naturally every month, following
a lunar rhythm and in most cases, spawning occurs over a period of
2-5 days. Spawning takes place at night, mostly around 22.00-24.00.
The fecundity is normally around 50,000 — 100,000 eggs per female.
India technology is not developed.
gilthead sea bream is a highly priced species in the Mediterranean
and neighbouring countires, and because of diminishing catches from
open waters there is considerable interest in its intensive culture.
large scale production of marine finfish was pioneered by Japanese,
with the red sea bream (Pagrus
). The expertise developed at British and French led to the setting
up of the 1st
commercial hatcheries of the gilthead sea bream in early 1980's.
carnivorous spp., show protandric hermaphoroditism.
natural breeding season in the Mediterranean region is between
October & December , when water temp. varies from 13-17°c.
are not available.
belonging to the genus Epinephelus
highly priced fish in the Indo-Pacific, Middle East and Ceridian
region. The high-valued food fish species groupers are widely
distributed in the costal water of India. More than 42 spp. have been
recorded along the East and West coasts of India and in the islands
in the Bay of Bengal. Among these the most preferred spp., for
coioides, E. fuscoguttaus, E. malbaricus, E. Polyphekadion and E.
have abundant nursery grounds located along the Gulf of Mannar, coral
lagoons of Lakshadweep and in the water of Andaman and Nicobar
hatchery in Chaungtha at Ayeyawady
is under construction and it is operational in 2003. Experiments of
induced sea bass breeding were carried out 2002 with wild caught
brood fishes. However, the results were not significant due to
imperfect maturity of brood fish and also due to lack of experience.
The CMFRI has carried out experimental cage culture of E.
seeds collected from the wild. However, a reliable hatchery and
grow-out production technology has not yet been developed in India.
An entrepreur has initiated attempts to set up a commercial hatchery
and grow-out production facilities for grouper at Andaman Islands.
The anticipated production is about 200 tonnes/year. Another business
venture has availed the wild groupers for fattening in sea-cages in
Andaman Islands for marketing alive to neighboring countries.
spp. which can stand rapid change in salinity between 2.5 and 45.5
ppt, optm. Salinity: 15-26 ppt
spawn throughout the year, show protogynous hermaphoditism
grouper culture is carried out in floating cages on a small scale in
Malaysia, Singapore & Hong-Kong.
production of groupers increased from 59,146 to 65,362 tonnes from
2004 to 2005, an increase of 11% (Figure3). (Note that this analysis
includes countries outside the Asia-Pacific region, however the bulk
of production is from Asia-Pacific countries). Despite this increase
in reported production, total value of production decreased by 12%,
from USD 208.5 million to USD 183.6 million over the same period
(Figure 3). This may reflect increasing market saturation by farmed
product, particularly by some lower-value grouper species, and
consequent price decreases.
(family: Anguillidae) are considered a delicacy in some countries.
Taiwan has become a major exporter of cultured eels to Japan. The
most common method of eel culture is in pond farms.
are not available.
fishes belonging to the family Siganidae
include a group of potentially important aquaculture species
occurring in the Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean, Red Sea & Eastern
herbivorous feeding habits, fast growth & high price in the
captivity show Omnivorous
available Feb to May
season Jan or Feb to April
long established system of commercial culture of Siganids appear to
be as subsidiary spp. Or in monoculture in brackish water ponds in
the Philippines or in embanked lagoons in Mauritius in combination
with oysters. Experimental culture of rabbit fish in floating cages &
pens, ponds & raceway system has been attempted in a no. of
countries including India.
are not available.
(family : Carangidae) is the only carangid that
significantly to aquaculture production at present, and its culture
is restricted to Japan.
name 'hamachi' originally referred to young one-year old
are migratory fish which move into the offshore waters from March to
May where they are spawn.
culture in diked coastal lagoons or lakes & specially floating
cage culture system are very famous.
are very few detailed records of the economics of yellowtail culture,
but like all other types of farming, the cost and earnings are very
much dependent on local conditions, the technology employed, and the
skill and experience of the farmers.
and Coral Trout (Plectropomus
female C. undulatus broodstock
trout broodstock (Plectropomus leopardus) from the Gondol
Institute for Mariculture
Research Institute for Mariculture - Gondol, Bali, Indonesia — has
successfully bred apoleon wrasse, a premium species in the live reef
fish market, commanding prices as high as US$100 per kg. Captive
breeding of Napoleon wrasse has long been one of the "holy grails"
of marine fish culture and NACA and the APMFAN. Many others have
tried, but this is the first reported success.
spawning took place around December 2003, via combined hormone
treatment and environmental control. Larviculture is still at a very
early stage and survival rate of the larvae is currently low. The
larvae have a small mouth so first feeding is still the main issue to
be tackled. SS-rotifer seems to be a suitable first feed for Napoleon
far (April 17, 2004) around 100 small juveniles have survived at
around 2-3 inches. The growth rate for this species is very slow; at
5 months old the fish only reach a maximum of 3 inches. However, slow
growth is a common issue when a new species is bred for the first
time, and will likely improve as the nutritional needs of this
species are better understood.
at Gondol have also had some success in breeding coral trout
(Plectropomus leopardus). The spawning took place in January 2004 and
by April 2004 around 100fingerlings of 2 inches are kept in the
research facility. Similar to Napoleon wrasse, coral trout also have
small mouths and require very small first feed, such as SS-rotifers.
culture is expanding throughout the world, notably in China and
Vietnam. Cobia have an extensive natural distribution, grow quickly,
and can feed on artificial diets. Under culture conditions, Cobia can
reach 3-4 kg in body weight in one year and 8-10 kg in two years.
Research on seed production and grow out culture of cobia in Vietnam
began in 1997-1998.
India at Mandapam regional centre of CMFRI, broodstock development of
Cobia in sea cages was achieved by feeding with broodstock diets.
Broodstock development, Induced breeding and larval production of
cobia, was achieved for the first time in India in year 2010.
a species of much interest for tropical marine finfish Aquaculture
has become a global commodity, in the same way as salmon has become a
global commodity in temperate Aquaculture. Most production currently
comes from China & Taiwan Province of China & totaled around
20,000 tonnes in 2003.
can be acquired by purchasing wild fish or by collecting dominant
individuals from grow-out operations (selecting broodstock from
different parental lines to avoid inbreeding). Most fish more than
two years in age have fully developed ovaries, but it is best to
collect three-year old broodstock if possible. Conditioning of
broodstock usually starts some 3-4 months before anticipated
spawning, by feeding with trash fish, squid and swimming crab
supplemented with mineral vitamins and 17α-methyltestosterone. The
amount of trash fish fed is about 4 — 5% body weight per day.
Mature fish are spawned in dedicated spawning tanks or sometimes in
floating net cages. Spawning tanks are 60m3 in volume with a depth
of 2.5m. Female broodstock are administered with an injection of
LRH-e or LRH-a at a dosage of 20 & μg/kg female,
males receiving half of this dose. There isn't a need to inject all
females but only one or two pairs. Spawning of cobia usually takes
place at night, although it occasionally also happens during the day.
After spawning, fertilized eggs are separated out and collected using
seawater at 35-36%. Sinking eggs should be discarded. Eggs are
stocked in the incubation tank at a density of 2000-3000 eggs/
litre. The incubation tank is 500m3 in volume maintained with light
aeration. Water exchange is carried out at 200-300% per day, using an
input and overflow pipe system.
: 1.9 million egg/female.
1:2 ratio of female: male are taken.
incubation period is 22 hrs & temp. 28-30°c.
is an emerging species of considerable interest to farmers in the
Asia-Pacific region. Presently, China and Taiwan Province of China
are the only two countries in the Asia-Pacific region to report
production of cobia. The apparent dramatic increase in cobia
production in 2003 is likely due to China
USD 41.2 million . Price remained relatively steady at around USD
1.80 per kilogram.
survey on the occurrence & abundance of cultivable seed resources
information are still lacking in some area, which are essential
prerequisites for large scale culture of marine fin fishes. Although
there is still room for further improvement, especially with regard
to cost effectiveness, present-day hatchery technology for marine
fish spp, has proven to be widely applicable, in terms of both
geographic location & fish spp.
of coastal aquaculture in India is immense, stringent regulation to
protect the environment & lack of balanced view and regulations
on this important sectors affect the progress of marine fish farming.
Sustainable marine fish farming, could be achieved in India through
integrated farming, sea-cage culture systems, polyculture and by
establishing reliable hatchery technology.
bulletin 44, part two, March 1990: paper 55: A Review of marine fin
fish cult. Research in India.
Course manual- 30.12.2008 to 19.01.2009
of marine fish farming in India- James CM.
of some aspects of marine fish larviculture
Sorgeloos, Marlene Dehasque, Philippe Dhert & Patrick Lavens.
ICES mar. sci. symp, 201: 138-142, 1995.
principles and practices by T.V.R.PILLAY.
Seafood — Fish — Crustacea
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