A Study On The Traditional Methods Of Fishing In Kuttanadu
Aquafind.com Aquatic Fish Database est. 1991


Search Supplier Directory
    Add Your Company
    Update Your Listing
Wholesale Supplier Short List
Fish Fact Sheets

Search Companies Directory
    Add Your Company
    Update Your Listing

Wholesale Seafood Traders
Wholesale Aquaculture Traders
Wholesale Ornamental Fish Traders

Capelin + Imports & Exports
Catfish + Imports & Exports
Crab/Shellfish + Imports & Exports
Fish Meal + Imports & Exports
Fish Oil + Imports & Exports
Groundfish + Imports & Exports
Grouper + Imports & Exports
Lobster + Imports & Exports
Octopus + Imports & Exports
Oyster + Imports & Exports
Pelagics
Salmon + Imports & Exports
Scallop + Imports & Exports
Seabass + Imports & Exports
Shrimp + Imports & Exports
Squid + Imports & Exports
Tilapia + Imports & Exports
Tuna + Imports & Exports

Auctions
Calendar
Cod Links
Definitions and Terms
Finance/Credit
Fish Fact Sheets
Market Prices
Market Reports
Seafood Links
Tilapia Links






About Aquafind
Aquatic Posters
Articles
Contact AquaFind
Currency Converter
Featured Product Pages
Scientific Aquacultrue Papers
Weather
World Clock
Shrimp & Seafood Recipes

LANGUAGE
Chinese French German Italian Spanish Russian


Custom Search


Bookmark and Share

A Study On The Traditional Methods Of Fishing In Kuttanadu,

Kerala, India

1Ajith. A, 1Joseph Edward, 2Sreenath, V. R and 1,2Sajan. S

1. Department of Zoology and Aquaculture, St. Aloysius' College, Mahatma Gandhi University, Edathua, Alappuzha, Kerala, India.

2. College of Fisheries, Kerala University of Fisheries and ocean Studies (KUFOS), Panangad, Kerala, 682506, India. Correspondence:

INTRODUCTION

Kuttanad, a marshy delta region in Southern Kerala is a replica of the earth's topography. It is a deltaic formation of four river systems namely, Meenachil, Pamba, Manimala, and Achancoil together with the low lying areas in and around Vembanad Lake. With silt based agriculture, Kuttanad was once a "rice bowl" and a "fish bowl". The economy of Kuttanad was sound and strong with her natural wealth. It is now generally proved that under human interference, Kuttanad has worsened her conditions. This marshy delta region comprised of Kottayam, Alappuzha and Pathanamthitta district of Kerala covering an area of 1,10,000 hectares. Kerala has greater inland water, rivers of 85,000 hac, estuaries of 2, 42,000 hac, and back waters of 29,659 hac. Fishing is not only for fish but also other aquatic animals. The implements used for catching fish are called fishing gear and to conduct fishing operation is called fishing craft. Fishing method is the manner or methods in which the fish may be captured.

The art of fishing can be divided in to three fields, subsistence fishing, sport fishing, commercial fishing. The water area of kuttanadu comprising of lakes, rivers, water ways and channels. Fishing is another important primary activity involving about 21,000 full time and part time fishermen. The species collected from these areas includes fresh water fishes and estuarine fishes such as milk fish, mullet, Pearl spot, marine prawns, fresh water prawns, molluscs such as clams, mussels etc. The important fishing area in kuttanad were,

a. Manimala River:

It originates from Mothavara hills in Kottayam district at Thalavadi village in Kuttanad taluk and passes through Edathua and Champakulam villages and joins the Pamba River at Muttar. The villages of Manimala, Mallappally, Kaviyoor, Kalloppara, Thalavadi, Kozhimukku and Champakkulam lie In the course of the river Manimala. It has a length of 91.73km and drainage area of 802.90km.

b. Pamba River:

Pampa is the third longest river in Kerala is formed by several streams originating from Peerumedu plateau in Idukki district, enters Alappuzha district at Chegannur and flows through Pandanad,Veeyepuram,Thakazhy and Champakulam through a distance 177.08km and plunges into Vembanad lake through several branches such as Pallathuruthi Aar, Nedumudi Aar and Muttar. The river has a length of 117km and is navigable to a length of 73km.The catchments area of this river is 1987.17sq.km.The main tributaries of the river are Pambayar, Kakki Aar, Arudai Aar, Kakkad Aar and Kallar.



c. Achankovil River:

This river often known as Kulallada River, orginates from Pasukida mettu, Ramakkal Theri and Rishimala of Kollam district enters the district at venmony and has a catchment area of 1155.14sq. Km and a marginable length of 32.19 km. It passes through Cheriyanad, Puliyoor and Chengannur villages, enters Mavelikkara Taluk at Chennithala, flows through Thriperumthura and Pallippad villages and joins Pamba at Veeyapuram.

d. Vembanad Lake:

The Vembanad lake, the most important of the west coast canal system has a length of 84km and an average breadth of 3.1km. It covers an area of 204sq.km.Stretching from Alappuzha to Kochi it borders Cherthala, Ambalapuzha and Kuttanad Taluks of Alappuzha district, Kottayam, Vaikom and Changanasserry taluks of Kottayam district, Kochi and Kanayannur Taluks of Ernakulam district. Pamba, Achankovil, Manimala, Meenachil and Muvattupuzha rivers discharge into this lake. Pathiramanal often called the mysterious sand of midnight, having coconut palms and luxuriant vegetation is situated in the center of this lake. Perumpalam and Pallippuram are the other islands in this lake. The Thannermukkom regulator constructed across Vembanad Lake between Thannermukkom and Vechur is intended to prevent tidal action and intrusion of saline water into the lake.

GEARS USED IN KUTTANAD INLAND WATERS

I. GILL NETS

The gill nets fishery is the typical fishing gear used in Kuttanadu. The gill net is operated by very essay so the peoples are wildly used for the capture fishery in Kuttanad. The gill nets are usually set across the direction of the migrating fishes. Gill nets can be operated varieties of ways. Bottom setting gill nets were used to catch demersal fishes. Free drifting gill nets were used to catch surface fishes. Seven types of gill net are used in Kuttanadu inland water bodies. Details of important varieties of gill nets operated in inland waters of Kuttanadu

No

Local

Name

Man

power

Length (meter)

Width

(meter)

Mesh

Size( mm)

Materials

used

Catch

Composition

1


2

3


4


5



6


7

Chemmeen vala

Idi vala

Kannadi vala

Kanambu vala

Kara vala



Karimeen vala

Kidukku vala

2


2

2


2


2



2


3

300


170-200

75


68


200



200-250


300

5.0


1.75

2


3.5


2.25



3.0


4

33


80-82

30


36


60



1.5-8.5


38-50

Nylon


Nylon Polypro-palene

Nylon


Nylon



Nylon


Nylon

Etroplus suratensis

Mullet

Mullets


Pearl spot

Cat fishes

Pearl spot

Wallago attu

Mugil cephalus

mullets

Carangids



II. SEINES

Among the 5 types of seines were examined during the present study. The main seines were used in kuttanad area are given below,

No

Local

Name

Man

power

Length (meter)

Width

(meter)

Mesh

Size( mm)

Materials

used

Catch

Composition

1



2





3



4







5

Thelivan vala

Valli vala





Thiruta vala

Kattu vala





Podo vala

2



6





4



4







6

90



12





20-30



35







100-150

20



2-25





18-16



6







4

50-70



13-15





40-60



80







20-25

Nylon



Cotton





Nylon



Cotton







Cotton

Etroplus sp:

Carangids

Perl spot

Singanus sp:

Cat fishes

Mugil cephalus

Barbs

Labio sp:

Wallago attu

carps

Barbs

Cat fishes

Paleomonids



III. CAST NETS

Generally these are circular nets, they have to be thrown or cast with great skill in order to be fall flat upon the water's surface, and then quickly sinking by the reason of their edge, they fall over the fish that has been such or is supposed to be there. In contrast to the cover pots the cast nets can only be used in waters that have no obstacle or plants and they are also possible in water body have a smooth bottom. The cast net can operated with banks of the water body and rivers. This gear is not possible in fishing with river containing strong currents. The cast netting catch composition are mainly Etroplus maculates ,Etroplus suratensis , Anabus testudinius,Puntius serana, Puntius filamentosis etc.



Details of cast net using in Kuttanadu Inland waters

Sl

No



Local Name

length

(meter )

Mesh

Size ( mm )

Materials used

Catch Composition

1



2



3



4



5



6



7

Chemmeen veeshu vala

Koona chemmeen veeshu vala



Padel

veeshu vala



Karimeen veeshu vala

Konchu veeshu vala

Kallum veeshu vala



Thekkan veeshu vala

3-4



3-5



4





3.5



4

4





4.5

12-20



36



12-16





60



60

30





30

Nylon



nylon



Nylon





Nylon



Nylon

Nylon





Nylon

Macrobracium idella

Metapenaeus dobsoni

Macrobracium idella

Mmetapenaus dobsoni

Macrobracium idella

Pearl spot

Etroplus suratensis



Macrobracium rosenbergii

Barbs

Catfishes

Perches

Catfishes



IV. TRAPS

Generally in fishery trapping means that the prey enters a catching chamber from which escaping is difficulty or even impossible. The fishes enters the trap voluntarily may be when searching for a shelter or lured by some bait or when frightened and guided by fisherman .the traps are many verities are available. The traps were operated may be varies from species, time and size of the traps are varied from the types of behavior and species of the fishes to be captured. Commonly used traps are given bellow.

1. Tubular traps: Tubular traps are funnel shaped gear mostly closed at the smaller end and without any non-return device. They can make of split bamboo reeds or slender branches. They also made of plaited smooth blast or netting yarn. The fish creeps in to the gear get stuck tries to move back, but is prevented the backward angle ray of dorsal fins. Tubular traps are typically fishing gear for river with strong current. In this case trap are set large scaffolding particularly were the flow is concentrated and are set with their opening against the current in such a way that fish may be swept in to the gear. Tubular traps are different in size and shapes depending up on the fishing operation. Tubular traps are mainly used for capturing of large sized fishes. The main catch component of the tubular traps are channa sp, Clarias batrahcus, eels,etc.

2. Mechanical traps: These are similar to mouse traps where the victim itself release a mechanism which prevent the escape. In gravity trap, weight suspended which when released by the fish prevent its escape. The elastic power of a bent rod traps .In torsion traps, the strength of twisted used to close trap

3. Cover pots: Usually the cover pots are of wicker construction like behave with an opening at the top. The cover pot is clapped over the animal by the fisherman wading shallow water and the prey inside the pot is taken out through the top opening. This catching method will only be successful in turbid, especially in muddy water; otherwise the victims will escape. In capturing with cover pots the most of the fishes are air breathing

V. HARPOONING

Besides the barbells one pointed lances and spears, harpoons were widely used in fishery. This gear replaced by the older spear in many instance and is today known that only in small-scale but also large fisheries this gear has been on spot fishery. Harpoons differ from spears in that the point become separated from the shaft when it penetrate the victim and the shaft floating to the surface both the point and the shaft remaining connected by line .The shaft floating to the surface e tell the fisherman where his victim is and act as a break or retarded to impend the fish's flight and tire it. The fisherman then follows to pick up the floating shaft and to haul it in together with the harpoon line connected to the separated harpoon head in the prey. The harpoons are widely used in spot fishing. The main fishes in harpooned fishing were Etroplus suratensis, Channa striatus, Wallago attu, Clarias batracus etc.

VI. HOOKS AND LINES

Hooks line are entirely different types of fishing tool .In mainly used in catch individual fishes and the shape size structure of the hooks are varying in the based on the size or the fish and feeding habit .The hooks are used to catch deep water fishes line fishing are done with a light bamboo trapped to a then pointed serving as food The line is generally cotton but now a days it may be synthesized monofilament.

1. Hand line: Hand line is the simplest form of fishing line .Hand line can be operated with or without a pole or rod. A line with a few hooks is operated by a single man paying constant attention to the catch.

2. Set line: Several hooks are set in a fixed position in the case of set lines these consists of a main line to which snoods with baited or hooks are fixed at regular intervals

3. Drift line: These are fishing lines which drift alone or are fastened to a fishing vessel. These can operate over large area. These lines are of considerable length and the snoods are usually longer and more widely spaced than for the bottom long lines. These are kept near the surface or at a certain depth by means of regularly spaced floats

VII. HAND PICKING

The clams are picked with a collection basket known as unda vala or kilungam. A more effective method locally known as "varandi" or kolli using a toothed ion rake is employed for combing the bottom and hearing up there clams which are then recovered in the collection basket. In another lightly modified method the koli or toothed ion rake is provided with a small bag net and the canoe itself

VIII. SPEARS

Instrument with sharp points are used, there by catching the fish in a damaged or injured condition. Spears are the simplest form of sharp projectiles and they range from single-prolonged stick to many pronged barbed one. Metal weight and barbed points called fish plummets pierce the flat fish over the bottom as they dropped down. Fish combs provided with prongs which pierce the fish when pressed in to the mud are mainly used in eel fishery .Bows and arrow too constitute a primitive gear

REFERENCE

1. VADAPALL SATYANARAYANAN. FISH CATCHING METHODS OF THE WORLD SYMPOSIUM ON FISH CULTURE

2. JOHN C SAINBURGY. COMMERTIAL FISHING METHODS AN INTRODUCTION TO VESSELS AND GEARS

3. GEORGE .V. C. AN ACCOUNT OF INLAND FISHING GEAR AND METHODS OF INDIA

4. KURUP .B .M AND SAMUEL C. J. HARVEST AND POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY OF FISH, p. 232, SOCIETY OF FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIST (INDIA) ,COCHIN

5. HORNEL .J. MADRAS FISH.

6. GOPINATH .K. INLAND FISH of. INDIA .


Contact | Terms of Use | Article Submission Terms | Advertising | Fish Supplier Registration | Equipment Supplier Registration
© 2017 Aquafind All Rights Reserved