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The Aquaculture Status and its Sustainability in Taiwan


Shinn-Pyng Yeh
Department of Aquaculture
Natioanl Pingtung University of Science and Technology
Pingtung, Taiwan 91207
ftsyeh@mail.npust.edu.tw

Introduction

Based on the FAO (1999) , the global fishery production in 1997 reached 122.14 million tons, of which 92.87 million tons are for human consumption. Fisheries supply a certain portion (23%) of animal protein for humans (Clark, 1996). Due to the fact that the production of capture fisheries has reached a maximum, aquaculture plays a major role in providing animal protein to humans in the next millennium. It is predicted that by 2010 world fishery production will be up to 144 million tons of which up to 39 million tons will come from aquaculture.

Although rapid growth of aquaculture in the past two decades has enabled the world fisheries supply to keep pace with population growth (Boyd et al, 1998; Csavas, 1998), it generated adverse environmental and socio-economic impacts. As one of the aquacultural leading countries, Taiwan has recognized this issue and imposed relevant strategies to make the industry sustainable.

This paper is to introduce the conception of sustainable aquaculture, status, objective and policy, and how to enter the way of sustainability.

Concept of sustainable aquaculture

The sustainable development has been well-defined by the FAO (1991) as "the management and conservation of the natural resource base, and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and future generations. Such development conserves land, water, and plant and animal genetic resources, is environmentally non-degrading, technically appropriate, economically viable, and socially acceptable." Since then, articles and reports related to sustainable aquaculture were found elsewhere (Barg et al, 1997; Braaten et al, 1997; Edwards, 1997; FAO, 1997; FAOa, 1998; FAOb,1998; Hambrey, 1996; Surtida, 1998). Barg et al (1997) and FAO (1997) focussed on the Principles of Article 9 of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. From the technology and environment’s point of view, Braaten et al (1997) listed the Norwegian experience on production of marine cage and land-based systems. Hambrey (1996) was the first to illustrate sustainability assessment on shrimp farm. In addition, Liao (1992, 1995, 1998), Chien and Liao (1998) and Liao et al (1995) have reported on similar topics.

Current status

Farming area

From the purpose of statistical record (Anon., 1999), the aquaculture in Taiwan is classified into inland and marine culture. The inland culture can be further categorized as brackish water and freshwater ponds. During 1970-1998, the total farming area increased from 42,447 ha to 63,189 ha, a total increase of 118% (Fig. 1). During the same period, the area used for brackish water culture increased from 16,738 ha in 1970 to 30,625 ha in 1992. After 1992 the area has slowly declined, with a total 24,483 ha in 1998. In the meantime, the area used for freshwater culture increased from 6,665 ha to 21,758 ha. The farming area for marine culture increased from 12,174 ha in 1970 to 18,832 ha in 1984, and dropped to 12,689 ha in 1998.

Aquaculture yield and value

In the period of 1970-1998, the aquaculture production rose from 66.59 thousand tons valuing 1.29 billion to NT$ 255.22 thousand tons valuing NT$ 27.39 billion (Fig 2; 3). In 1998, milk fish yielded, 58.35 thousand tons, and ranked first, followed by tilapia, clam, oyster, eel and freshwater prawn (Anon., 1999). As to value, eel was the highest valuing about NT$ 6.03 billion, followed by oyster, freshwater prawn, milk fish, grass prawn and abalone.

Trade

By 1998, the Taiwan area imported 282.74 thousand tons valuing NT$ 16.78 billion and exported 455.67 thousand tons valuing NT$ 34.79 billion (Anon., 1999) of which amount was less import and more export than previous years (Fig. 4; 5).

Emphasized industry and other performance

A. Fish seed industry

According to the Fisheries Yearbook in the Taiwan area in 1998 (Anon., 1999), the total freshwater and marine finfish seed production was 2812.71 million (valued at NT$ 2194.68 million), shrimp seed was 3022.74 million (NT$ 250 million), soft shell turtle and crab juveniles were 61.33 million (NT$ 486.13 million), and small abalone seed reached 172.41 million (NT$ 433.10 million). Shell fish seed was 747 metric tons (NT$ 20.89 million).

In order to promote Taiwan as the Asian-Pacific fish seed supply center and to export high quality fish seed to the Asia-Pacific region, the Fish Breeding Association (FBA) of the Republic of China was founded in May 1996. Currently, the association has more than 860 members. The main goal of the FBA is to reorganize domestic marketing capability, to assist in exploring exporting market, to strengthen the techniques exchange among farmers and to promote breeding techniques. In addition, with favorable climatic conditions and the excellent technology, by now, about 270 species of fish, shellfish seed and other animal’s can be mass produced (FBA, 1999). Their total value in production area amounts (NT$ 4 billion). It turns out the turnover of related aquaculture accessories is over NT$ 30 billion. For example, 90% of 64 species of marine finfish cultured at present (Table 1) is being artificially propagated (FBA, 1998). Its production and value is summarized in Table 2 (Yeh, 1998).

B. Offshore aquaculture industry

In order to lower down the use of freshwater and land resources, the development of offshore aquaculture has been selected as one of the major tasks. It is estimated that a ha of marine cage can yield 40 times greater than that of land-based fish pond with same area. It has had more than two decades of experience. Since 1993, the government has guided fishing net companies to develop wind- and wave-resistant cages and to import cages from Norway, Denmark and Japan. Unlike Japan and Norway, local cage farmers culture a lot of species, i.e. cobia, greater yellowtail, grouper, sea bream, snappers and other species. From the culture technique and management’s point of view, cobia with its fast growing rate has the best potential to become an internationalized species. With more than 3,000 cages in 1998, Taiwan produced about 2,770 tons of marine finfish (Table 3) valuing NT$ 522.5 million. Most of the cages were deployed near the coast.

As to the system of brand identification, marketing channels and information, the Taiwan Offshore Aquaculture Association was also established in August, 1999.

C. Land-based recirculating water production system

Land-based recirculating water production system for eels was introduced as a scientific study in 1993 by the Fisheries Research Institute of the Council of Agriculture, formerly the Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute. Later, this system was adjusted to meet the needs of the local environment. By 1999, there will be 11 eel farms with this system which has the capacity of producing 2,042 tons annually (Table 4). By 1998, the automation system of fish seed production and feeding was achieved by several institutions (COA, 1998). From the fiscal year of 1999 to 2000, the government will finance a so called "Industry- institute cooperation project" to set up an indoor grouper recirculating water production system.

D. Ornamental fish industry

In 1998, there were 205 ornamental farms, 69% of them were in southern Taiwan (Yeh, 1999), with a total area of 69.39 ha (Anon., 1999), which could artificially produce more than 120 species of freshwater ornamentals (Yeh, 1999). There were 1,299 aquariums around the island, 47.4% of them were in northern Taiwan. The total value of the ornamental and its related industries were estimated at NT$ 4.5 billion. Among them, ornamentals and farm/aquarium accessories each occupy 40% and feed takes the remaining 20%.

From an official report in 1998, the major ornamental traders imported NT$ 5.95 million and exported NT$ 35.43 million. Based on the survey from the major traders and distributors, the estimated export trade value is more than sevenfold of the above-mentioned value. Their major importing and exporting species are cichlids, livebearers, koi, gold fish and others. And Taiwan is the only producer and exporter of blood parrot, Cichlasma hybrids.

In June 1999, with the guidance of the Fisheries Administration of the Council of Agriculture, the Ornamental Production and Marketing Group and Management Committee at Pingtung was established under the FBA. This group consists of 7 subgroups: 3 African cichlids, 1 Cichlasma hybrids, 1 goldfish and koi, 1 aquatic plant and 1 marine ornamental. Currently, 87 members with a total farming area of 95 ha, of which the major goal is to coordinate production and marketing and to expand the domestic and overseas markets.

E. Other performance

Besides the above emphasized industries, the government also wants to develop overseas aquaculture business to modify the operational structure of the local industry into an international one. As stated before, aquaculture will be the main source of fishery product in the next century. In accordance with the government’s Go South policy, the managers of local aquaculture industry are encouraged to invest in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, due to their low labor and land cost.

The impacts from the industry

Lured by profits, many farmers in the west and northeast coast of Taiwan are involved in aquaculture. They illegally dug 170,000 wells and pumped excessive amounts of groundwater. And industrial, residential and standard agricultural sectors also pumped groundwater. Freshwater used for aquaculture in Taiwan in 1998 reached 2.547 billion m3 , 1.159 billion m3 from groundwater and 1.388 billion m3 from surface water (Chen, 1998). Recent data shows that 5.94 billion m3 of groundwater is being pumped annually and only 4 billion m3 is naturally being replaced. This 1.94 billion m3 deficit has caused land subsidence in many areas, especially along the southwestern coast and on the Ilan Plain. Overall, almost 865 km2 of Taiwan’s plains, a full 8 %, tends to subside. The most serious subsidence occurred around Chiatung, Pingtung County which has sunk by as much as 3.06 m. The average rate of subsidence in coastal areas is between 5 and 15 cm each year.

In order to ease the land subsidence phenomenon, the Executive Yuan passed a "Land subsidence control program" in 1995, drawn up jointly by the Council of Agriculture and the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA). Furthermore, the Water Resources Bureau was established under the MOEA in 1996 and reorganized in 1997 to unify the planning and management of water resources. Since then, the "Principles of water resources policy planning" has been drawn up and carried out. It is expected that the total area for the inland fish pond will be reduced to 22 thousand ha, 6 thousand ha for freshwater culture and 16 thousand ha for brackish water culture. One of the major works is to strengthen the conservation and management of groundwater. The average rate (cm/yr) of land subsidence has decreased from 12.6 in 1988-90 to 3.62 in 1998-99 (Table 5). The total area of land subsidence decreased from 1,057 km2 in 1995 to 865 km2 in 1998. The farming area in land was reduced from 53.07 thousand ha in 1995 to 46.24 thousand ha in 1998. The government has banned 1,524 illegal wells and 12,928 cases of illegal use of electricity by farmers. The use of freshwater was 5.72 billion tons in 1998, as compared to 7.14 billion tons in 1995. To improve the flooding, the government has accomplished waterways improvement (258.7 km), coastal dike and sea wall construction (72.8 km), coastal infrastructure protection (4.6 km), and dike raising (27.5 km).

Objectives and strategies

The major objectives of sustainable aquaculture are twofold. One is to develop environment-friendly practices in the marine and land-based aquafarms (Aldon, and Buendia, 1998) and the other is to make the industry sustainable in the future (Liao, 1998). As mentioned earlier, the sustainable aquaculture in Taiwan has been well discussed and published (Liao, 1992; 1995; 1998; Chien and Liao, 1998; Liao et al, 1995). Liao (1998) pointed out its limitations and strategies (Table 6). He also recommended short-, mid- and long-term policies toward the sustainable development (Table 7).

Policy

The shortage of water and land resources is the major constraint for aquaculture development in Taiwan. Therefore the government’s policy is focused on adjustment of the structure of this industry to lessen the dependence on water and land resources. In 1992, the Council of Agriculture has been carrying out the "Aquaculture Tutelage Plan" to promote the judicious utilization of water and land resources, that prevents the depletion of groundwater, to lead the aquaculture industry in to well-regulated development, and to enhance the correlation between the fishery market supply and demand. During the fiscal year of 1999 and 2000, the Fisheries Administration will carry out a project called the "Promotion of the aquaculture industry and harmony of the environment" under the "Cross-century agriculture construction program", to fulfil the policy of sustainable aquaculture. The following are the major works:

  1. To improve the production environment to lower the consumption of freshwater resource.
· Planing a sea water supplying system in 3 sites.
· Extending a recirculating water system for 100 aquafarmers.
· Improving water inflow and outlet systems in 30 sites.

2. To promote the marine cage culture to turn the sea into farms.

· Extending financial support to purchase marine cage related equipments.

3. To construct the geological information system (GIS) of fish ponds.

· Estimating to complete the GIS in 8 counties with major fish pond area.

In addition, the Water Resources Bureau enforces the "Principles of water resources" policy (WRB, 1999) as follows:

1) Principles

a. Both the development and the conservation of water resources must receive equal emphasis.
b. The developments of water resources must assure the preservation of the ecological system.
c. Water users must be required to pay fees and those who use excess amounts of water should pay extra.

Conclusions and recommendations

With the advance of technology, world aquaculture production has fast increased over the past two decades. It is estimated that most of the world’s seafood supply will come from aquaculture in the next 50 years (Gand, 1997). Since Taiwan is an island, the land and freshwater resources are very limited. With an appropriate aquaculture climate and supporting system, Taiwan has grown to become one of the aquacultural technique leading countries. Therefore, the future development of aquaculture should be carefully planned and implemented. For example, the fish seed industry, marine cage industry, ornamental fish industry and land-based recirculating water production systems are essential for Taiwan to develop and extend toward a sustainable development. The following are the recommendations to these fields of which approaches have not yet been specified:

  1. To the fish seed industry
  1. Cultivation of fish and shellfish’s broodstock.
  2. Environmental control of fish and shellfish breeding.
  3. Disease prevention during the breeding process.
  4. Cultivation of livefood organisms.
  5. Microfeed for fish and shellfish seed.
  6. Production of specific pathogen free or specific pathogen resistant (SPF or SPR) seed.
  1. To the offshore aquaculture industry
  1. To modify regulations to encourage enterprise being interested in the industry to develop the processing and marketing system.
  2. To introduce a foreign insurance system to reduce the high risk of cage culture.
  3. To increase R/D investment to develop cage systems suitable for the marine environment of Taiwan.
  4. To select target species and the promotion of techniques to reduce the cost.
  5. To enforce regulations relating to waste production and to develop the technology of waste reduction and collection.
  1. To the land-based recirculating water production system
  1. Development of a water-cycling system, including water treatment and sludge removal.
  2. Production of less polluted fish feed to reduce wastes such nutrients, BOD, biodegradable organic matter and suspended solids and particles.
  3. The introduction of appropriate management and planning strategies through practical courses, training and relevant information.
  4. Control of effluent discharge to make sure that intake and outlet of water are separated.
  1. To the ornamental fish industry
  1. Careful selection of introduced species with high potential on the market.
  2. Encouraging farmers to cooperate with academic and research institutes to culture and develop new species.
  3. Integrating resources of the aquarium, koi, and fish breeding associations to build effective circulation networks.

 

References

Aldon, E.T. and R.Y. Buendia, 1998. Environment-friendly practices in the aquafarm. SEAFDCE Asian Aquaculture, 20(3):22-27.

Anon., 1999. Fisheries yearbook Taiwan area 1998. Fisheries Administration, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan.

Barg, U.C., D.M. Bartley, A.G.J. Tacon and R.L. Welcomme, 1997. Aquaculture and its environment: a case for collaboration. p.462-470. In: Developing and Sustaining World Fisheries Resources: the State of science and Management. 2nd World Fisheries Congress, Hancock, D.A., D.C. Smith, A. Grant and J.P. Beumer (eds.), CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia.

Boyd, C.E., L. Massaut and L.J. Weddig. 1998. Towards reducing environmental impacts of pond aquaculture. INFOFISH International, 2/98:27-33.

Braaten, B. 1997. Technological and environmental constraints to be considered in a strategy for the development of sustainable aquaculture systems. p.9-21. In: Fishing the Future: An aquaculture strategy workshop for South Africa, 5-6 November 1997, Pretoria, South Africa.

Chen, S. 1998. Field studies and analysis on the rational water use of aquaculture (III). Taiwan Fishery Bureau, Department of Agriculture and Forestry, Provincial Government of Taiwan.

Chien, Y.H. and I.C. Liao, 1998. Management of land, water, and energy resource utilization for aquaculture. p.78-90. In: Improving Management of Aquaculture in Asia. Report of an APO Seminar, 8-16 May 1996, Taipei, Republic of China.

Clark, J. 1996. Coastal zone management handbook. CRC Press, Florida, U.S.A.

COA, 1998. Report on automation in Agriculture, fishery and livestock industry. Council of Agriculture.

Csavas, I. 1998. Current status and outlook of the aquaculture industry. p.288-308. In: Improving Management of Aquaculture in Asia. Report of an APO Seminar, 8-16 May 1996, Taipei, Republic of China.

Edwards, P. 1997. Sustainable food production through aquaculture. Aquaculture Asia, 2(1):4-7.

FAO, 1991. Elements for strategies and agenda for action. Strategies and tools for sustainable agriculture and rural development. FAO/Netherlands Conference on Agriculture and the Environment, held 15-19 April 1991 in S-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands, Rome, FAO. 27 p. plus appendices.

FAO, 1997. Aquaculture Development. FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. No. 5. Rome, FAO.

FAOa, 1998. Bangkok FAO technical consultation on policies for sustainable shrimp culture. FAO Fish. Rept., No. 572.

FAOb, 1998. Ad hoc expert meeting on indicators and criteria of sustainable shrimp culture. FAO Fish. Rept., No. 582.

FAO, 1999. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 1998.

FBA, 1998. Field survey of fish seed production. Fish Breeding Association of Republic of China. (unpublished survey data sheets)

Fishery Bureau, 1999. Economic study on coastal fishermen and aquafarmers in Taiwan area. Fishery Bureau, Department of Agriculture and Forestry, Provincial Government of Taiwan.

Gand, A.S. 1997. The world aquaculture 1997: present status and developmental prospects. (printed report)

Hambrey, J. 1996. The sustainability of shrimp farming. Seminar on Aquaculture Industry: Prospects and Issues, 22-23 August 1996, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. 11 p.

Liao, I.C. 1992. Aquaculture in Asia: status, constraints, strategies, and prospects. Aquaculture In Asia: Proceedings of the 1990 APO Symposium on Aquaculture. TFRI Proceedings 1: 13-27.

Liao, I.C. 1995. Significance of species diversification on the prawn culture industry. p.129-152. In: Report of an APO seminar on Aquaculture in Asia and the Pacific, 25 August-4 September, 1992, Tokyo, Japan.

Liao, I.C., W.C. Lee and Y.K. Hsu, 1995. Aquaculture in Taiwan: toward a sustainable industry. p.1-13. In: International Cooperation for Fisheries and Aquaculture Development, proceedings of the 7th Biennial Conference of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade, Vol. 2. National Taiwan Ocean University, International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade, Keelung, Republic of China.

Liao, I.C. 1997. Larviculture of finfish and shellfish in Taiwan. J. Fish. Soc. Taiwan, 23(4): 349- 369.

Liao, I.C. 1998. Toward a sustainable aquaculture development. p.62-77. In: APO-COA Seminar on Improving Management of Aquaculture, 8-16 May 1996, Taipei, Republic of China.

Surtida, M.B. 1998. Sustainability in aquaculture. SEAFDCE Asian Aquaculture, 20(3): 12- 13.

WRB, 1999. The white paper of water resources policy. Water Resources Bureau, Ministry of Economic Affairs, R.O.C. (in Chinese)

Yeh, S.P. 1998. Marine fish seed industry in Taiwan. p.154-167. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Offshore Technologies for Aquaculture, 13-16 October 1998. Technion, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Haifa, Israel.

Yeh, S.P. 1999. Ornamental fish industry in Taiwan. Presented at ROC-RSA Aquaculture Scientist Exchange Workshop, 11-21 May 1999, Pretoria, South Africa.



Figure 1. Aquaculture area (1000 ha) in Taiwan during 1970-98.

Figure 2. Aquaculture production (1000 metric tons) in Taiwan during 1970-98.

Figure 3. Aquaculture value (1000 NT$) in Taiwan during 1970-98.

Figure 4. Fishery trade quantity (1000 metric tons) in Taiwan during 1970-98.

Figure 5. Fishery trade value (1000 NT$) in Taiwan during 1970-98.

Table 1. The current status of cultured marine finfish species in Taiwan (adapted and revised from Liao, 1997; Yeh, 1998).


Scientific name

Common name

Water type

Seed

Source

Production

Acanthopagrus latus

Yellowfin sea bream

S

H

E

A. berda

Picnic sea bream

S

H

E

A. schlegeli

Black sea bream

S

H

E

A. sivicolus

Southern black sea bream

S

H

E

Anthias disper

Red fish

S

H

D

Boleophthalmus pectinirostris

Pond or mud skipper

S

H

E

Caranx ignobilis

Giant trevally

S/F

H

E

Chanos chanos

Milkfish

S/F

H

E

Choerodon schoenleinii

Black spot tusk fish

S

H

D

Cromileptes altivelis

Highfin grouper

S

H

E

Eleutheronema tetradactylum

Four finger threadfin

S

H

E

Epinephelus akaara

Red grouper

S

H/W

E

E. awoora

Yellow grouper

S

H/W

D

E. coioides / suillus

Red-spotted grouper

S

H/W

D

E. fario

Black-saddled grouper

S

H/W

E

E. fuscoguttatus

Tiger grouper

S

H

D

E. lanceolatus

Giant or King grouper

S

H

E

E. malabaricus / salmonides

Malabar grouper

S

H

E

E. quoyaqnus

Long-finned grouper

S

H/W

D

E. tauvina

Green grouper

S

H

E

E. tukula

Potato grouper

S

H/W

E

E. trimaculatus

Brown marbled grouper

S

H/W

D

Evynnis cardinalis

Golden-skinned porgy

S

W

-

Girella melanichthys

Smallscale blackfish

S

H

D

Glossogobius giuris

Flathead goby

S

H

D

Gnathanodon speciosus

Kingfish/Golden trevally

S

W

E

Hapalogenys nitens

Beard grunt

S

H/W

D

Kyphosus lembus

Shortfin rudderfish

S

H/W

D

Lateolabrax japonicus

Japanese sea bass

S

H

E

Lates calcarifer

Asian sea bass

S

H

E

Lethrinus nebulosus

Green snapper

S

H

E

Liza macrolepis

Largescale liza

S

H/W

D

Lutjanus argentimaculatus

Mangrove red snapper

S

H

E

L. erythropterus

Pink snapper

S

H

E

L. johnii

John’s snapper

S

H

E

L. malabaricus

Firespot snapper

S

H

E

L. monostigma

Onespot snapper

S

H

E

L. russelli

Russell's snapper

S

W

-

L. sebae

Emperor snapper

S

H

E

L. stellatus

Spotted snapper

S

H

E

Miichthys miiuy

Nibe or brown croaker

S

H

D

Mugil cephalus

Grey mullet

F/S

H/W

E

Nibea diacanthus

Speckled drum

S

H

D

Oplegnathus punctatus

Spotted knifejaw

S

H

D

Pagrus major

Red sea bream

S

H

E

Platax orbicularis

Narrow-banded batfish

S

H

D

Plectorhynchus cinctus

Three-banded grunt

S

H

E

Plectorhynchus gibbosus

Sweetlips

S

H

E

P. pictus

Three-lipped grunt

S

H

E

Plectropomus leopardus

Coral trout

S

H

D

Polynemus plebejus

Common threadfin

S

H

E

P. sexfilis

Six threadfin

S

W

-

Pomacanthus maculosus

Blue moon angel fish

S

H

E

Pomadasys kaakan

Lined silver grunter

S

H

D

Psettodes erumei

Big-mouthed flounder

S

H

D

Pseudosciaena crocea

Large yellow croaker

S

H

D

Rachycentron canadum

Cobia or Sergeantfish

S

H

E

Scatophagus argus

Spotted scat

S

H

D

Sciaenops ocellatus

Red drum

S

H

E

Seriola dumerilli

Greater yellowtail

S

W

-

Siganus fuscescens

Dusky spinefoot

S

H

E

S. guttaus

Speckled spinefoot

S

H/W

D

S. oramin

Yellow-spotted spinefoot

S

H/W

D

Sillago sihama

Sand borer

S

H/W

D

S. vermiculatus

Reticulated rabbitfish

S

W

-

Sparus sarba

Silver sea bream

S

H

D

Takifu rubripes

Tiger puffer

S

H

E

Terapon jarbua

Three stripe tigerfish

S

H/W

D

Trachinotus blochii

Pompano

S

H

E

F: Freshwater, S: Seawater, H: Hatchery, W: Wild, E: Established, D: Developing.

 

 

Table 2. The present status of the marine finfish seed industry in Taiwan (revised from

Yeh, 1998).

Species

Length

(cm)

Est. production

per 1000 seed

No. of

Hatcheries*

Unit price range (NT$/seed)

Grouper

<1

4450

26

7-14

"

6

2025

22

28-40

Giant grouper

3

248

2

250

Highfin grouper

6

350

1

250

Red drum

3

1155

12

4-6

Red sea bream

3

200

3

5-10

Black sea bream

3

4000

4

0.7-1

Yellowfin sea bream

3

1850

4

1-1.5

Silver sea bream

3

4400

11

1-1.5

Picnic snapper

3

13200

2

10-15

Mangrove snapper

3

6650

8

5-10

Spotted snapper

3

60

1

15-20

Green snapper

3

250

2

3-5

Cobia

10

1390

4

10-15

Japanese sea bass

1

11800

5

2-10

Permit fish

3

10300

8

0.8-2

Pompano

3

600

1

0.8-2

Three-banded grunt

3

3250

5

5-10

Lined silver grunter

3

520

5

1-2

Narrow-banded batfish

3

120

2

10-12

Sea trout

3

120

1

6-7

Milkfish

0.7

410000

19

0.1-0.4

Total

 

476938

148

 

Est.: Estimated.

*: Number of hatchery surveyed.

Table 3. The current status of sea cages in Taiwan (FBA, 1998; Anon., 1999).

Item

County (area)

Total

cages

Scale

(m2)

Culture

species

Yield*

(tons/yr)

Pingtung

(Tung Kang)

1,902**

4×4

6×6

red and silver sea bream, pompano,

mangrove snapper, grouper, cobia

249

Pingtung

(Hsian Liu Chyou)

30

6

6

31*

10*

4×4

6×6

10×10

16a (dia.)

7b (dia.)

grouper, red sea bream, black sea

bream, great yellowtail, cobia, pink

snapper

grouper, cobia, red sea bream, great

yellowtail, pink snapper

109

 

 

 

Pingtung

(Fang Liau)

55

4×4

6×6

10×10

grouper, red sea bream, great yellow

tail, pink snapper, cobia

65

Pingtung

(Chu Keng)

64

6×6

10×10

grouper, red sea bream, great yellow-

tail, green and pink snapper, cobia,

great yellow croaker

182

Pingtung

(Hai Koou)

6*

20c (dia.)

cobia

30

Pescadores

905

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

12

3×3

4×4

5×5

6×6

7×7

8×8

10×10

12.7a (dia.)

20a (dia.)

grouper, red sea bream, great yellow-

tail, green snapper, grunt, drum,

cobia, dusky spinefoot

 

 

 

 

 

cobia

2,128

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ilan

(Tung Ao)

10

10×10

grouper, great yellowtail

-

Hsinchu

(Hsiang Shan)

4

13d (dia.)

stock catch from set net

-

Hualian

(Chung Der)

12

10×10

stock catch from set net

-

Hualian

(Shi Ti)

5

10×10

stock catch from set net

-

Taipei

(Shi Men)

8

3×3

stock catch from fishing

-

Total

3,072e

   

2,763

* : Estimated yield. ** : stop operation in 1998.

a: imported from Norway. b: domestic made circular cage.

c: octagonal cage, made in domestic. d: imported from Denmark.

e: the grand total 3,072 is including 29 cages being only for stocking purpose.

dia.: diameter (m) of circular cage.

Table 4. Indoors recirculating water production system for eel in Taiwan by 1999.

Farm

Capacity (ton)

Location

Construction year

Public and private sector

1

5

Keelung

1993

Fisheries Research Institute

2

100

Tainan

1995

Yi Hwa Aquaculture Farm

3

172

Tainan

1995

Jui Feng Wen Farm

4

105

Taoyuan

1995

Ho Hang Enterprise Co., Ltd.

5

20

Taoyuan

1995

Magnasia Corporation

6

370

Taoyuan

1995

Hwa Tai Ta Yuan Farm

7

150

Ilan

1996

King Car Biotech. Farm

8

50

Tainan

1997

Ho Hsen Farm

9

500

Hualian

1997

Scientrade Enterprise Co., Ltd.

10

120

Taipei

1998

Mountain Legend Co., Ltd.

11

400

Tainan

1998

Chief Agriculture Co., Ltd.

12

50

Taoyuan

1999

Ta Reun Farm

Source: Extension book on indoors recirculating water production system (III). Fisheries Administration, 1999.

Table 5. Land subsidence rate (cm/yr) during 1988-99.

Year

Area

1988-90

1990-92

1992-94

1994-96

1996-98

1998-99

Ilan

5.64

0.34

0.33

3.32

2.62

1.3

Changhua

8.93

27.04

24.46

8.13

16.21

17.55

Yunlin

37.09

25.33

10.59

4.24

1.92

1.68

Chiayi

20.94

16.76

10.86

7.36

2.91

1.44

Tainan

4.8

2.93

0.82

-

-

-

Kaohsiung

3.9

1.77

3.67

-

-

-

Pingtung

6.93

1.23

16.03

3.26

7.06

3.62

Average

12.60

10.77

9.54

5.26

6.14

5.12

Source: Report on bench mark observation. Water Conservancy Agency and Energy and Resources Laboratories, 1998.

Table 6. Strategies of sustainable aquaculture in Taiwan (adapted from Liao, 1998).

  1. Establish and implement a suitable management system.
  2. Explore fish meal alternatives.
  3. Develop offshore aquaculture systems.
  4. Balance aquaculture development and environmental conservation.
  5. Expand scope of aquaculture research.
  6. Establish disease prevention and treatment schemes.
  7. Broaden aquaculture extension service program.
  8. Establish an aquaculture production-marketing system.
  9. Extend the scope of stock enhancement program.

Table 7. Policies toward the sustainable aquaculture in Taiwan (adapted from Liao, 1998).

Short-term

  • Restructuring the aquaculture industry to strengthen its ability and to meet international competition.

    • Designate exclusive aquaculture zones and improve the aquaculture environment.

    • Delineate adequate areas and regions with specific culture species to satisfy future needs.

    • Improve aquaculture techniques and automation to increase productivity.

    • Establish and implement aquaculture management regulations toward a systematic development of aquaculture.

Mid-term

  • Establishing Taiwan as an Asia-Pacific center for the supply of culture larvae and brood-stocks.

    • Improve aqua-farmers’ entrepreneurial ability and their organizational skills in hatchery operations in order strengthen the industry’s competitive position.

    • Designate exclusive larvi-culture zones.

    • Establish licensing and assessment programs for producing culture larvae and brood-stocks.

    • Assessing a special agency to regulate fish movement and quarantine.

    • Study and improve aquaculture techniques on internationally-important high-value species.

    • Develop quick and simple tools to identify and ensure the quality of culture larvae.

    • Establish a management system for water utilization.

Long-term

  • Establishing Taiwan as an international center for aquaculture technologies.

    • Increase overseas investments to enhance the influence of Taiwan in world aquaculture.

    • Establish an aquaculture scientific park to encourage inputs from the private industry.

    • Strengthen technology transfer and cooperative research ventures with other nations to improve the reputation of Taiwan in world aquaculture.

    • Integrate human and financial resources with a solid direction to maintain the technical advantages.

    • Raise the level of aquaculture agencies and institutes in the government hierarchy to strengthen its influence on policy determination and research.

 

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