These definitions were developed from submissions by members of
the Seafood Industry. Please contact us with additional definitions
or corrections that we may add to this seafood processor definitions
new seafood processor definitions.
Seafood Processor Definitions
Additional Terms & Deifinitions
Abalone — a mollusk, related to
a sea snail, similar in flavor to a clam. It may be cooked by
various methods and is best suited to very long or very short
cooking times. Also called "awabi" in Japanese cuisine and
"loco" in South American cuisine.
Aberdeen Cut — A rhombus-shaped
cut from a block of frozen fish; sides may be squared off or cut
with a tapered edge. Usually breaded/battered. Also called diamond
cut, French cut.
Additives — chemicals used in
processing seafood to help retain moisture and improve appearance.
They must be approved by the FDA and listed on product labels.
American Cut — Fish portions or
fillets with tapering or beveled edges, rather than square-cut
sides. Also called Dover cut.
Anadromous — fish that are born
in fresh water, descend into the sea to grow to maturity, and then
return to spawn in freshwater rivers and streams. Examples include
Pacific and Atlantic salmon, American shad and striped bass.
Anchoveta — an anchovy,
Cetengraulis mysticetus, found along the Pacific coast from British
Columbia to Lower California, used for bait.
Aquaculture — rearing aquatic
plants and animals in either fresh or salt (sea) water.
"Mariculture" means, more specifically, using seawater. A
hatchery is also a form of aquaculture, but the fish are released
before harvest size is reached. The National Aquaculture Act of 1980
defines aquaculture as "the propagation and rearing of aquatic
species in controlled or selected environments, including ocean
ranching." The Act divides responsibility for most aquaculture
research, regulatory and related activities among the Departments of
Agriculture, Commerce, and Interior. Private aquaculture has grown
rapidly and diversified in recent years.
Artisanal Fishing — fishing for subsistence needs by
coastal or island ethnic and indigenous groups using traditional
methods. Also known as subsistence or aboriginal fishing.
Battered — Product is covered,
usually with egg or flour and partially cooked prior to freezing.
B/F-Block Frozen — Blocks are
uniformly shaped masses of cohering fish fillets or a mixture of
fillets and minced fish flesh, or entirely minced fish flesh ranging
in weight from 13 to 16 lbs. intended for further processing into
fish sticks and portions. Larger blocks may contain whole dressed
fish for subsequent thawing, processing or resale.
Block-Boned/Boneless — Product
has been processed to remove backbone and rib bones.
Fillet block — Product skinless
fillets laminated in a plate freezer with perfect corners and edges
exactly 7 48 kgs in weight generally 140 blocks on a pallet.
H&G block — Product headed
Mince block — Product minced
Piece block — Product
Basket Shrimp — small
undeveined, breaded shrimp.
Batter — a mixture of dry
ingredients (such as flours or starches) and water in a ratio
suitable for coating seafood.
Batter-Dipped — sometimes
referred to as batter-fried. Products that have been coated in
batter and then immersed in hot oil to secure the batter. These
products are then usually frozen.
Battered — Product covered in
liquid mixture, usually egg and flour. This is usually partly cooked
(pre-cooked) to set the batter in place before freezing.
Belly Burn — A condition where the rib bones protrude into the belly cavity. It usually indicates soft flesh, and shows that the fish was not totally fresh when processed or not properly eviscerated.
Benthic — refers to fish and
other marine animals that live on or in the water bottom.
Berried — female lobsters or
crabs with eggs attached to the appendages of the underside of the
abdomen. By law, they must be returned to sea.
BFT — Bluefin Tuna
Billfish — fish such as marlins,
sailfish, spearfish and swordfish that are highly migratory and have
snouts extended into a bill or "spear."
Biodiversity — defined in the
Biodiversity Convention as "the variability among living
organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial,
marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of
which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between
species and of ecosystems."
Biological Reference Points —
fishing mortality rates that may provide acceptable protection
against over fishing a stock. They are usually calculated from
equilibrium yield-per-recruit curves, spawning stock
biomass-per-recruit curves and stock recruitment data. Examples are
F0.1 or Fmax.
Biomass — the size of a stock,
usually measured by weight in pounds or metric tons, at a given
time. For example, spawning biomass is the combined weight of mature
Biotoxins — natural toxins
produced by organisms, often for use as a defense.
Bisulfite (sodium bisulfite) —
used to treat shrimp to prevent melanosis, or black spot.
Bits & Pieces- Bits &
pieces of fish block laminated in a plate freezer with perfect
corners and edges exactly 7 48 kgs in weight generally 140 blocks on
Bivalve — a mollusk with two
shells hinged together, such as the oyster, clam, or mussel.
Black Spot — a darkening between
a shrimp shell and the tail muscle; it develops as the product
deteriorates. It is more properly known as melanosis.
Blast Freezing — freezing by
circulating cold air over seafood in trays or racks. Continuous
operations use rotating belts or spiral screens.
Bleeding — Cutting an artery
behind the gills of a fish to improve quality and shelf life. Large meaty fish like tuna are routinely bled before further processing. Skates and sharks are also bled to remove uric acid.
Block — Frozen fish blocks are rectangular or other uniformly-shaped masses of cohering fish fillets or a mixture of fillets and minced fish flesh, or entirely minced fish flesh. These blocks usually range in weight from 13 to 16 lbs. and are intended for further processing into fish sticks and portions. Larger blocks may be available that contain whole dressed fish for subsequent thawing, processing or resale.
Blocklisting — a procedure of
the U.S. Food and Drug Administration that requires imported
products to be detained and approved by the FDA before distribution
in the United States.
Blood Line — a line of blood
located along the backbone of the fish that often is removed prior
to the fish being frozen or further processed.
Bnls — Boneless
Boned — all primary bones have
been removed, although some secondary bones may remain.
Boned/Boneless — Term used by
packer to indicate that product has been processed to remove
backbone and rib bones. Term used by packer to indicate that product
has been processed to remove backbone and rib bones.
Boneless Fillet — Fillets from
which the pinbones have been removed.
Boston Cut — A fillet cut that
removes most of the nape and leaves a small portion of the pinbones,
which break down when cooked and become indistinguishable from the
rest of the fillet.
Bottomfish (see also Groundfish) —
those fish species that reside on the ocean floor, including
sablefish, pollock, cod, and many flatfish. Typically harvested by
trawls, pots and longline.
Bottom Trawls — nets designed to
work near the bottom.
Botulism — a toxin produced by
Breaded — Product covered in
liquid dip, bread crumbs and seasonings. The breading forms a jacket
within which the product cooks gently. Breading helps to retain
moisture in the product during cooking, and also adds contrasting
texture and flavor to the product.
Breading — flour, breadcrumbs,
cracked meal or a blend of flour and other ingredients used to coat
Brine Freezing — Freezing
seafood by soaking in liquid brine.
Brining — the process of
immersing a fish in a solution of food-grade salt and water for a
period of time to allow it to absorb salt. It often referred to as
"pickled" or "wet salted."
Broodfish — Fish kept for egg production, including males. Broodfish produce
the fertilized eggs, which go to hatcheries.
Bubble Pack — a type of
packaging in which whole-cooked lobster is frozen in brine and
packed in a sealed plastic "bubble" with water. Also
called "popsicle" pack.
Bullets — hole gutted fish with
head and tail removed.
Bushel — Measure equal to 8
gallons or 32-quart capacity.
Butterflied — a method of
cutting a fish fillet or shrimp. A butterfly fillet is cut along
both sides of the fish with the two pieces remaining joined by a
piece of skin. Butterfly shrimp is peeled and deveined, with the
shell left on the last tail segment.
Butterfly Fillet — Fish is cut
along both sides with the two pieces remaining joined by the skin of
the back. Technically, two pieces held together with the belly skin is called a kited fillet.
Butterfly Shrimp — Peeled and
deveined shrimp with the shell left on the last (tail) segment.
Bycatch — has a variety of
meanings, some of which are overlapping or contradictory. The
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act defines it
as "fish which are harvested in a fishery, but which are not
sold or kept for personal use, and includes economic discards and
regulatory discards...[but not] fish released alive under a
recreational catch and release fishery management program."
Bycatch Reduction Device — a modification to fishing gear
to reduce the catch or mortality of bycatch species during fishing
C&F — Shipping term for cost
and freight. When quoted, a C&F price means price delivered.
Cage Culture — the rearing of
fish or other organisms in cages suspended or floating in a suitable
area of a water body for commercial purposes.
Calamari — the Italian word for
Cakes (fritters, dumplings) — a
mixture of flour or meal, seafood and other ingredients such as
vegetables and seasonings in a batter that is sautéed, fried or
Candling — Skin is removed by an
automated skinner. After skinning the fillets, the flesh is run by
bright lights and inspected for defects.
Carapace — the shield covering
the upper surface of part of the body of various crustacean species
(for example, the broad shield forming the upper body cover of crabs
and of the front portion of prawns and lobsters).
Carrying Capacity — the maximum
number of organisms that a certain habitat can sustain over the long
Catch Per Unit Of Effort (CPUE) —
the catch of fish, in numbers or in weight, taken by a defined unit
of fishing effort. Also called catch per effort, fishing success, or
availability. It is often used as a measure of fish abundance.
Catadromous — fish that spend
most of their life in fresh water and migrate to saltwater to spawn.
The American eel is an example.
Caviar — Sturgeon eggs which
have been preserved in salt. Caviar comes in many grades and types
and must be transported and held fresh at temperatures between 25F
and 30F. (See Roe)
Cellopack — packaging whereby
seafood, normally fillets, are wrapped in cellophane or polyethylene
film and typically packed in 5- or 10-pound boxes. Also called
Cello Wraps — Fillets wrapped
together in cellophane or polyethylene film. Each wrap is usually
labeled with the type of fish, the packer and the brand. Six
polywraps per 5-lb. box is standard.
Cephalopods — literally,
'head-foot'. Refers to animals like squid and octopus, in which the
tentacles converge at the head.
Cetaceans — marine mammals of
the order Cetacea, including whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Chinook Salmon (King Salmon) —
the largest salmon species, averaging more than 25 pounds. They are
usually caught by gillnet and troll.
Cholesterol (dietary) — a
fat-like substance classified as a lipid. It is vital to life and is
found in all cell membranes. Dietary cholesterol is found only in
animal foods. Abundant in organ meats and egg yolks, cholesterol is
also contained in meats, poultry and some seafood.
Chubs — Mechanically filled
tubes of various colors of various weights of between 2 & 5 kgs
each chub and fixed with a metal or plastic clip at either end.
Chum Salmon (Dog Salmon) —
called dog salmon in part because of the hooked snout and protruding
dog-like teeth that become prominent when spawning.
Chu-toro — Chu-toro means medium
fat in the summer months. A tuna only has chu-toro and akami parts
since the fish is swimming around a lot more and is leaner in winter
however the chu-toro is meltingly soft and has a very different
flavor from akami.
Chunks — Chunks or off cuts of
fish produced generally from a filleting or portioning operation.
Chunk sizes will vary and they should be skinless and boneless
Ciguatera — an illness caused by
eating certain fish containing ciguatoxin caught in tropical and
island waters. The toxin is believed to originate in microscopic
algae that the fish eat. The fish most commonly implicated are
amberjack, snapper, grouper, mahi-mahi, barracuda and reef fish of
the Carrangidae (jack) family.
Ciguatera — A neurotoxin found
in certain types of reef fish. The toxin accumulates in the flesh as
a result of eating some forms of algae, or preying on fish that eat
Cleaned Shrimp — shrimp that
have been peeled and washed, a process that removes some or all of
the vein, but is not thorough enough to warrant the P&D label.
Clipper — denotes high-quality
swordfish or mahi-mahi, usually caught and frozen at sea.
Cluster — a group of legs and a
claw from one side of a crab with the connecting shoulder area still
attached. Also known as a "section."
Clam — a variety of bivalve, or
two-shelled mollusk. The two main types of clams are soft shell and
hard shell. Local names for clams include littleneck, razor, quahog,
surf and margaritas, as well as many more.
Cocktail claw — Claws from a
crab with part of the shell removed to expose the meat.
Cod — fish from the family
Gadidae, but this term especially refers to Atlantic cod, Gadus
Codend — the closed end of a
trawl net where the fish are collected.
Coho Salmon (Silver Salmon) — a
salmon species that is primarily caught with trolls.
Cohort — those individuals of a
stock born in the same spawning season.
Cohort Analysis — a scientific
technique for estimating the magnitude of fishing mortality and the
number of fish at each age in a stock.
Commercial Fishing — defined in
the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act as
"fishing in which the fish harvested, either in whole or in
part, are intended to enter commerce through sale, barter or trade."
Cold-Smoked — fish or other
seafood smoked at low temperatures (around 80° F) for 18 hours to
several days, producing a moist, delicately flavored product.
Collar — the bones of a fish
just behind its gills. The collar is discarded when a fish is
steaked or filleted. Most headless fish are sold with the collar on
because it helps preserve the fish's shape.
COOL — Farm Security and Rural
Investment Act of 2002, more commonly known as the 2002 Farm Bill.
One of its many initiatives requires country of origin labeling for
beef, lamb, pork, fish, perishable agricultural commodities and
CPND — Cooked, Peeled &
CPTO — Cooked Peeled Tail On
Council — refers to the Regional
Fishery Management Councils, established by the Magnuson-Stevens
Fishery Conservation and Management Act to prepare Fishery
Management Plans and amendments for fisheries in the U.S. Exclusive
Counts — the number of a seafood
product (e.g. shrimp or scallops) per pound. The larger the count,
the smaller the individual pieces.
Crayfish — Freshwater
crustaceans of the genera Astacus and Cambarus. They are also known
as crawdads and crawfish.
Croquettes — Patties containing
a mixture of breading or breadcrumbs or other binder; usually at
least 35% seafood, such as combination of fish and crabmeat. May
have all one kind of seafood, such as shrimp or crabmeat, or a
combination. Product forms include breaded; pre-cooked or browned;
I.Q.F., 2 oz. each, dry-pack.
Cross-Contamination — occurs
when cooked seafood comes into direct or indirect contact with raw
seafood, other raw food or contaminated surfaces and utensils.
Crusher — the larger of the two
claws on an American lobster.
Crustacean — shellfish of the
class Crustacea, characterized by joined appendages and hard outer
shells. This group includes shrimp, crayfish, lobster, and crabs.
Cryogenic Freezing — an
accelerated form of blast freezing in which products are exposed to
sprays of liquid nitrogen or CO2 at minus 150º F or colder. Used
for IQF products.
Cubes — Generally IQF
individually quick frozen cubes cut into various sizes from 4mm
Cull — an American lobster with
one or no claws. Normally sold at lower price than lobsters with
Curing — Using salt or sugar to
draw moisture from the flesh of fish, also used to enhance flavor.
Custom Cut — Irregularly shaped
triangle cut from a block of frozen fish.
Cuttlefish — cephalopods related to squid.
Deep-Skinned — fish that has had
the fat layer underneath the skin removed. This creates milder
flavor and improved shelf life.
Demersal — fish that live near
the bottom of an ocean, river or lake, also known as groundfish.
Also refers to eggs that are denser than water and sink to the
bottom after spawning. Examples are flounder and croaker.
Depletion — reducing the
abundance of a fish stock through fishing.
Depuration Processor (DP) — A
person who receives shellstock from approved or conditionally
approved, restricted or conditionally restricted growing areas and
submits such shellstock to an approved depuration process.
Devein — to remove the vein
(digestive tract) from the tail section of a shrimp, lobster or
Dip — chemical solutions or
additives used to preserve shelf life and prevent moisture loss.
Discarding — disposing of catch,
dead or alive, during or after fishing operations.
Dorsal — the top of a fish. Also
refers to the top fin on the fish.
Double Fillets — cut from both
sides of the fish, with the two remaining pieces joined at the back.
Also called "butterfly fillet."
Double-Frozen — fish or
shellfish that is frozen at sea, thawed for reprocessing in a plant
onshore, and then frozen a second time. Also called "twice-frozen"
Dragger — A term interchangeable
with a fishing trawler boat. Draggers tow a large net.
Drawn — fish that are gutted,
with head and fins intact.
Drawn Fish — Entrails, gills and
scales removed. Since entrails cause rapid spoilage, drawn fish have
a longer storage life.
Dredges — fishing gear that is
dragged along sand or mud sea bottoms, usually to collect mollusks.
The vessel drops a steel frame dredge to the sea floor and it is
dragged across the seabed. The catch is held in a sort of bag or
sieve which allows the water, sand or mud to run out.
Dressed Fish — Completely
cleaned but with head on (head removed is usually called
pan-dressed). Both forms are ready for stuffing and are generally
cooked in one piece. Fish that have been gutted and scaled with
gills removed. Usually the fins are removed as well. Dressed in NZ
commonly refers to a HG or HGT fish which has the head cut which
carries further back, the angle is more severe into the belly (
giving lower H&G recovery ) also known as a J cut, for red fish
Dried — seafood that has been
dehydrated by natural (air, sun) or mechanical means.
Driftnets — type of floating
gillnet kept on the surface, or just below it, by numerous floats
and held vertical by a weighted foot rope. These nets drift freely
with the currently, either separately or, more usually, with the
boat to which they are attached. These nets caused considerable
controversy, particularly because of concerns over the level of
bycatch, and the UN General Assembly has called for a worldwide ban
on the use of driftnets longer than 2.5 km on the high seas.
Drip Loss — occurs as a seafood
product gives up moisture.
Dry Pack — a package of chopped
clams containing no clam juice.
Dry Salting — used in curing
seafood, allowing it to acquire a denser, firmer texture.
Dungeness Crab — (Cancer
magister) — a species found on the U.S. West Coast that is
distinguished from other commercially caught crabs by its
disproportionately small legs.
DWPE — (Detention Without
Physical Examination- formerly known as Automatic Detention)
Occasionally, FDA identifies products from an entire country or
geographic region for DWPE when the violative conditions appear to
be geographically widespread. Detention recommendations of this
breadth are rare and are initiated only after other avenues for
resolving the problem have been exhausted.
DWT — Dressed Headless Without Tail
Ecology — a branch of science
concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their
environments; the totality or pattern of relations between organisms
and their environment.
Ecosystem — a complex of plant,
animal and microorganisms, which, together with the non-living
components, interact to maintain a functional unit.
Endangered Species — those
species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant
portion of its range. They are protected under federal and
international law and cannot be bought or sold in commercial trade.
Endangered Species Act (ESA) — a
statute enacted in 1973 to conserve species and ecosystems. Species
facing possible extinction are listed as "threatened" or
"endangered," or as "candidate" species. When a
listing is made, recovery and conservation plans are prepared to
ensure the protection of the species and its habitat.
Equilibrium Yield — the yield in
weight taken from a fish stock when it is in equilibrium with
fishing of a given intensity, and (apart from effects of
environmental variation) its biomass is not changing from one year
to the next. See also sustainable yield.
Essential Fish Habitat — defined
by the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act as
"those waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning,
breeding, feeding or growth to maturity."
Estuarine Dependent — refers to
the many species of fish, crustaceans and mollusk that live in
estuarine habitats for all or part of their lives. Examples include
oysters, blue crabs, shrimp and red drum.
Estuary — a semi-enclosed body
of water with an open connection to the sea. Typically, there is a
mixing of sea and fresh water, and the influx of nutrients from both
sources results in high productivity.
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) —
an ocean area that extends from the seaward boundaries of the
coastal states (3 nautical miles, in most cases) to 200 miles off
the coast of the United States. Within this area, the United States
claims and exercises sovereign rights and exclusive fishery
management authority over all fish and all Continental Shelf fishery
Ex-vessel Price — Price received by fishermen for fish,
shellfish and other aquatic plants and animals landed at the dock.
F — an abbreviation used by
fishery scientists for the rate of fishing mortality.
Fancy — Crab sandwich-style mix
of leg and shoulder/body meat.
FALCPA — Food Allergen Labeling
and Consumer Protectioon Act of 2004.
FAS — Frozen At Sea
FDA Consulting Services — The
only company to contact when you need FAST, accurate and affordable
HACCP, Food Safety and Total Quality Management Services.
Fmax — the rate of fishing
mortality for a given exploitation pattern rate of growth and
natural mortality, that results in the maximum level of
yield-per-recruit. This is the point that defines growth over
F0.1 — the fishing mortality
rate at which the increase in yield-per-recruit in weight for an
increase in a unit-of-effort is only 10 percent of the
yield-per-recruit produced by the first unit of effort on the
unexploited stock (i.e., the slope of the yield-per-recruit curve
for the F0.1 rate is only one-tenth the slope of the curve at its
Fats (dietary fats) — known
chemically as triglycerides, fats are an essential nutrient in a
healthy diet. Fats supply essential fatty acids, such as linoleic
acid, which is especially important to childhood growth. Fat helps
maintain healthy skin and regulate cholesterol metabolism. Dietary
fat is needed to carry fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and to aid
in their absorption from the intestine.
Fecundity — the total number of
eggs produced by a female fish.
Fillet — A slice of fish flesh
of irregular size and shape that is removed by a cut made parallel
to the backbone.
Fillet — Fillet with the nugget
(belly flap attached to it.)
Fillets skinless belly flap off
Fillets skinless belly flap on
Fillets skinless boneless
Fillets skinless bone in
Fillets skin on belly flap on
Fillets skin on belly flap off
Fillets skin on boneless
Fillets skin on bone in
Haddie — A medium-sized haddock split down the back with backbone
left on, then brined and hot smoked.
Haddie — A medium-sized haddock split down the back with backbone
left on, then brined and hot smoked.
Fish Steak — a thick,
cross-section cut of a large fish that includes a piece of the
Fish Sticks — Irregular-shaped
pieces of fish, similar to a long, thin fillet, breaded or battered,
raw or pre-cooked, usually machine cut from fish block, then coated
Fishery — defined in the
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act as "one
or more stocks of fish which can be treated as a unit for purposes
of conservation and management and which are identified on the basis
of geographical, scientific, technical, recreational, and economic
characteristics; and...any fishing for such stocks."
Fishery Management Plan (FMP) —
a plan developed by a Regional Fishery Management Council and the
Secretary of Commerce to manage a fishery resource pursuant to the
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act.
Fishing Capacity — the quantity
of fish that can be taken by a particular fishing unit, for example,
an individual, a community, a vessel or a fleet.
Fishing Community — defined in
the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act as "a
community which is substantially dependent on or substantially
engaged in the harvest or processing of fishery resources to meet
social and economic needs, and includes fishing vessel owners,
operators, and crew and United States fish processors that are based
in such community."
Fishing Effort — the total
fishing gear in use for a specified period of time. When two or more
kinds of gear are used, they must be adjusted to some standard type.
Fishing Mortality — the amount
of fish taken by fishing.
Fishing Power — represents the
ability of a gear or vessel to catch fish during a certain time
interval. Larger vessels with greater horsepower that catch more
fish have a greater fishing power than smaller vessels. Improvements
in a vessel or gear, such as a fish finder, can increase fishing
Flag Of Convenience — the
registration of vessels under the flags of a number of States which
operate "open registers," i.e. registers open to vessels
from any State, whether or not there is any real connection between
the orthodox State of the vessel and itself or not. Panama and
Liberia have traditionally been the principal open registry
countries, although since the 1980s there has been a growing list of
flag of convenience States — e.g., Honduras, Vanuatu, and Belize.
Some vessels use flags of convenience to evade restrictions on
fishing adopted by their original flag State. The unregulated
fishing by vessels flying flags of convenience is now regarded as
the major threat to internationally sustainable fisheries.
Flakes — Flakes of fish flakes
are easiest produced from cooked or pasteurised fish.
Fletch — Large boneless fillet
of halibut, swordfish or tuna.
FOB/FOT — Free on board/Free on
truck. Charges beyond the termination point are the buyer's
Food Guide Pyramid — a graphic
design used to communicate the recommended daily food choices
contained in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The information
provided was developed and promoted by the U.S. Department of
Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Fork Length — the length of a
fish measured from the tip of the snout and the most anterior point
of the fork or "V" of the tail.
Formed Fillets — Portions cut
from blocks in such a way that they appear to be natural fillets,
although all are exactly the same size and shape.
Freedom of Fishing — one of the
oldest principles of the international law of the sea. It is usually
attributed to the early 17th Century Dutch jurist, Hugo Grotius, who
argued that ownership of the high seas was unnecessary and that its
resources should remain free for the use of all.
Fresh — under FDA rules, refers
only to product that is raw, and has never been frozen or heated,
and contains no preservatives
Freezer Burn — Dehydration
caused by the evaporation loss of moisture from product. It is
recognized by a whitish, cottony appearance of the flesh, especially
at the cut edges or thinner places.
Freezer Trawlers — trawlers that are outfitted with
refrigerating plant and freezing equipment and on which the fish is
preserved by freezing.
Gaping — the separation of meat
in a fillet, either as a natural feature of the fish flesh or a
result of poor handling. Also refers to the opened shell of live
shellfish. Severe gaping indicates the shellfish is dead and should
not be eaten.
Gel Pack — a coolant package
filled with a gel-type material used for shipping seafood. Coolants
are often dyed blue so any leakage is obvious.
GG — Gilled and gutted.
Completely cleaned, but with head on.
GGS — Gilled, Gutted, Scaled
Ghost Fishing — occurs when lost
or abandoned nets continue to capture marine life after the nets
have been lost or abandoned.
Gillnets — curtain-like nets
suspended vertically in the water to entrap fish. Fish are caught by
their gills in the net. These nets may be used to fish on the
surface, in mid-water, or at the bottom
Girdie — the large reel used to
pull in trolling lines.
Glaze — Protective coating of
ice on frozen product, used to prevent dehydration.
Glazed — fish that has been
dipped in water after freezing. Ice forms a glaze around the fish,
protecting it from damage by freezer burn.
GMP — (Good Manufacturing
Practices) Federal regulations define specific procedures to
minimize the contamination of food products by people in
manufacturing, processing packaging and warehousing facilities. The
regulations are called Good Manufacturing Procedures (GMPs). GMPs
are an integral part of quality control.
Grading — a term for the
incremental measurement of the weight or quality of seafood, such as
counts per pound of shrimp.
GRAS (Generally Recognized as
Safe) — the regulatory status of food ingredients not evaluated by
the FDA prescribed testing procedure. It also includes common food
ingredients that were already in use when the 1959 Food Additives
Amendment to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act was enacted.
Gravlax — fillets of salmon
rubbed with a mixture of coarse salt, sugar and white pepper, placed
meat side against meat-side with mustard and dill and pressed with
weights in a chilled environment. The salmon is then sliced
paper-thin and served with pumpernickel bread, sour cream, capers,
onion, and lemon. Other spellings are gravadlax and gravlax.
Green Headless — raw, heads-off,
unshelled shrimp. "Green" is not the color of the shrimp.
Green Sheet — The name by which
most people refer to the Market News Reports issued by the National
Marine Fisheries Service from New York.
Groundfish — Fish caught on or
near the sea floor. The term usually applies to cod, cusk, haddock,
hake, pollock and Atlantic ocean perch.
Growth Over fishing — a type of
over fishing in which the loss in weight of a stock from mortality
exceeds the gain in weight due to growth. When this occurs, the rate
of fishing causes a reduction in the biomass of a stock. This point
is defined as Fmax.
Gutted — fully eviscerated.
HACCP (Hazard Analysis and
Critical Control Point) — a system for preventing food borne
illness by identifying the processing steps at which problems may
occur and developing solutions to reduce or eliminate them. At the
request of the seafood industry, HACCP became mandatory for seafood
by the FDA in December 1997.
Halibut — species of fish
(Hippoglossus hippoglossus and Hippoglossus stenolepis)
characterized by their flatness. Both eyes are on the top side of
the body. Halibut reside on the sandy bottoms of the ocean floor and
are harvested by longlines. Halibut meat is highly valued.
Hard-Smoked — products that have
been smoked for up to several weeks.
H/G — Headed and Gutted
HGT — Headed, Gutted, Tail-off
H/L — Headless
High Grading — the discarding of
a portion of catch in order to make room for larger or better
quality (i.e. higher value) fish.
Highly Migratory Species —
marine species that migrate long distances during their life cycle.
Most tunas are included. Generally accepted scientific views of
which species are highly migratory do not always accord with those
listed in the Law of the Sea Convention.
High Seas — those ocean waters
that are not included in the Exclusive Economic Zone, in the
territorial sea or in the internal waters of a State, or in the
archipelagic waters of an archipelagic State.
Histamine — an organic substance
produced in the tissue of a fish that has not been properly cooled
after harvest. Histamine concentrations produce allergic-like
reactions in humans. Poorly handled mahi-mahi, tuna and bluefish are
the most commonly implicated species. Also called scombroid
poisoning due to its association with the Scombridae fishes.
Histamines — Chemicals produced
by decomposition of flesh in scombroid species (tuna, mahi mahi,
mackerel) from poor handling. Not usually fatal in individuals with
normal immune systems.
HLPD — Headless Peeled Deveined
HLSO — Headless Shell-On
HOSO — Head-On Shell-On
H/O — Head-on
Hot-Smoked — seafood exposed to
smoke at gradually increasing temperatures (up to 180º F) over a
period of 12 to 18 hours, resulting in coagulation of the protein.
The product is cooked through, has a dry texture and an intensely
Humpy Salmon — another name for pink salmon.
Incidental Catch — fish that are
taken that were not targeted, although it is more precisely used to
mean fish that are caught and retained on board for landing, even
though it was not being targeted. See also Bycatch.
Individual Transferable Quotas
(ITQs) — regulatory systems that allocate fishing privileges to
individual participants in the fishery. An individual quota may be a
percentage or fixed portion of the total allowable catch (TAC) of
the fishery and it can be leased, sold or otherwise transferred.
Conditions may be attached to the quota and it may be withdrawn if
fishing regulations are not complied with.
INTL — Interleaved
I/L — Interleaved
Internal Waters — waters on the
landward side of the baseline of the territorial sea, such as river
mouths and creeks, ports, harbors and canals.
Invertebrates — animals without
a backbone. Examples include shellfish, worms and jellyfish.
IPB — Individually Poly-Bagged
IWP — Individually Poly-Wrapped
IQF — Portions or chunks of fish
that are Individually Quick Frozen
IVP — Individually Vacuum Packed
J — Cut — Trimming a fillet
removing both the nape and pinbones.
Jacks — male Pacific salmon that
mature precociously (earlier than other fish in its age-class).
Jennys — female Pacific salmon
that mature precociously (earlier than other fish in its age-class).
Jigging — a method of fishing
using lures on a vertical line that is moved up and down, or jigged.
It is used to catch squid and may be carried out by hand-operated
spools, or by automatic machines. The rotation of the spool as the
line is wound creates the jigging action.
Jimmy — a male blue crab.
Julienne — Strips of fish that are cut into thin strips.
Kg, Kilo, Kilogram — Metric
weight equivalent to 2.2046 lbs. Imported product is often sold by
King Salmon — another name for
Kipper — To cure (herring, salmon, etc.) by cleaning,
salting and drying or smoking.
Laminated Fish Block- Laminated in
a plate freezer with perfect corners and edges exactly 7 48 kgs in
weight. Generally 140 blocks are on a pallet.
Landings — the amount of fish
caught by fishermen and brought back to the dock for marketing.
Langouste — the French name for
the spiny lobster, differentiated from Maine lobsters (Homerus
americanus) in that they have no claws. Langoustes are warm water
crustaceans that can be found in the South Atlantic Ocean, the
Mediterranean Sea, and off the coasts of South America, Australia
and the West Indies.
Lateral Line — a sensory organ
along each side of the head and body of fish, probably for detecting
vibrations, currents and pressure.
Layer Pack — Product, usually
fillets, put into a carton in layers with a sheet of polyethylene
between each layer of product.
Listeria Monocytogenes — a
bacterium found in the environment that is resistant to heat,
freezing and drying. It has been associated with foods such as raw
milk, soft-ripened cheeses, ice cream, raw vegetables, raw and
cooked poultry, raw meat and raw and smoked seafood. Listeria can
survive and grow at temperatures as low as 5 degrees C (41 degrees
F). Acute infection with listeria may result in flu-like symptoms
including persistent fever, followed by septicemia, meningitis,
encephalitis, and intrauterine or cervical infections in pregnant
women. Possible gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting
Logbooks — the official vessel
record of catch and effort data. In many fisheries, logbooks are
Logs — Dressed headless without
the tail or D.W.T.
Loin — The boneless portion cut
lengthwise from either side of the backbone of a large, round-bodied
fish. The back portion of the fillet having had removed the belly
Longline Fishing — uses a main
line that is anchored horizontally above the seabed with baited
hooks on branch lines running off at periodic intervals. Longlines
are supported in the water by a series of floats. Off the main line
are branch lines with baited hooks. Longlines are used for catching
demersal and pelagic fish. The quality of the catch is generally
good because the fish are not crushed together as they would be in a
net, although longlines sometimes capture non-target fish or other
Long-Term Potential Yield — the
maximum long-term average catch that can be achieved from the
resource. It is analogous to the concept of maximum sustainable
Lox — Smoked salmon.
Maatjes — natural fermented and cured herring which can be eaten raw. They are a Dutch speciality sold in Netherlands as well as in Germany and Belgium.
Conservation and Management Act (MSFCMA) — a statute enacted in
1976 to establish an Exclusive Economic Zone (see definition above)
in which foreign fishing could be controlled, and to set up a
conservation and management structure for U.S. fisheries.
Mariculture — marine (ocean)
aquaculture, farming the sea for plant and animal crops.
Marine Fisheries Commission —
one of three interstate marine fisheries commissions (Atlantic
States, Gulf States, Pacific States) that help state fishery
officials to manage fisheries in state territorial marine and
Marine Mammal Protection Act
(MMPA) — a statute enacted in 1972 to protect marine mammals and
Marine Mammals — species that
live in marine waters and breathe air directly. They include
cetaceans (whales, dolphins porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, walruses,
sea lions), sirenians (manatees and dugongs) and sea otters.
Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) —
the largest long-term average catch or yield that can be taken from
a stock or stock complex under prevailing ecological and
Mellanosis — Blackening of the
shell in crustacea, especially shrimp and some crabs. Mellanosis
will always appear in time, but it happens much more quickly if
product has not been properly handled before freezing.
Merus — Crab all legs.
Mid-water Trawls — (also called
pelagic trawls) work in mid-water rather than the sea bottom. Their
front net sections are very often made with very large meshes, which
herd the fish schools towards the back of the net. They may be towed
by one or two boats.
Mince Block — Laminated block of
mince fish fish pieces that have been passed through a Baader
machine or similar mechanical devise to separate out the skin and
Molluscs — soft-bodied, usually
hard-shelled, animals of the phylum Mollusca and divided into three
categories — univalves (abalone, conch, and snails), bivalves
(clams, oysters, and mussels), and cephalopods (squid and octopus).
Molting — The shedding of the
exoskeleton of crustaceans, allowing for new growth.
MPA's — Marine Protected Areas.
M/T — Metric tonn
Nape — the front and thinnest
part of a fillet, around the belly.
Napecut Fillets — A wide angular
cut from the gillcover to the vent eliminating the rib cage, or by
slicing it from the fillet.
Natural Mortality — the deaths
in a fish stock caused by predation, senility, etc., but not
Net Weight — The weight of
product less the amount of packing material or glaze.
NGO — Non-governmental
organization - (NGOs) are non-profit organizations that are neither
governmental nor intergovernmental. Generally established to bring
together like-minded individuals committed to achieving particular
objectives in the governance of fisheries.
Nominal Catch — the sum of the
catches that are landed (expressed as live weight or equivalents).
Nominal catches do not include unreported discards.
Norwalk Virus — a virus that can
contaminate raw oysters/shellfish, water and ice, and salads, and
can be spread by person-to-person contact.
Nugget — The belly flap of a fish, usually removed manually
from the fillet.
Ocean Ranching — a type of
aquaculture in which farm-raised smolts are released into the ocean
and return to their native rivers, where they may be caught.
Ocean Run — Industry term for a
pack of random weight and size products. Catchweight, or random
Offcuts — Pieces of fish of
varying sizes that have been removed during the portioning or
Omega-3 — the fatty acids found
in seafood and other sources. Research has found that these fatty
acids have a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system and many
other aspects of human health.
Opening — a term referring to
the beginning of harvesting in a fishery. Openings may last only a
matter of hours or up to a number of months.
Optimum Yield — defined in the
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act as "(A)
the amount of fish which will provide the greatest overall benefit
to the Nation, particularly with respect to food production and
recreational opportunities, and taking into account the protection
of marine ecosystems; (B) is prescribed as such on the basis of the
maximum sustainable yield from the fishery, as reduced by any
relevant economic, social, or ecological factor; and (C) in the case
of an over fished fishery, provides for rebuilding to a level
consistent with producing the maximum sustainable yield in such
Organic — food products that are
grown using cultural, biological and mechanical methods prior to the
use of synthetic, non-agricultural substances to control pests,
improve soil quality an/or enhance processing.
Organoleptic evaluations — An integral part of Good Manufacturing Practices. The GMPs are an essential pre-requisite for HACCP. The level of spoilage which OE assess's is intertwined with both quality and safety.
O-toro — O-toro means big fat
and that that's what it is, a piece of well-marbled o-toro looks
like top-quality kobe steak. When you dip your sadhimi or sushi into
soy sauce you'll even see a glisten of oil left behind.
O-toro — O-toro means big fat
and that that's what it is, a piece of well-marbled o-toro looks
like top-quality kobe steak. When you dip your sadhimi or sushi into
soy sauce you'll even see a glisten of oil left behind.
Over Capacity — refers to the
situation where the fishing capacity of a fleet exceeds the
availability of fish to it.
Over fishing — defined in the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery
Conservation and Management Act as "a rate or level of fishing
mortality that jeopardizes the capacity of a fishery to produce the
maximum sustainable yield on a continuing basis."
Parasites — Worms or larvae that
may occur occasionally in fish. All processors carefully inspect
fish for parasites and cut out any discovered prior to shipment.
Dead parasites are harmless but unappetizing.
Pair Trawling — trawling by two
vessels moving in parallel with a single net towed between them.
Pasteurizing — A process
(usually heating) to kill most pathogenic organisms, reduce the
total microbial flora, and inactivate enzymes (indirectly).
P/D — Peeled and deveined tail-off
PB/I — Pin Bone In
PBI — Pin Bone In
PBO — Pin Bone Out
PDI — Peeled and deveined and
individually frozen shrimp.
PDTO — Peeled and deveined tail on.
Pelly Amendment — a United
States law that allows the President to impose import sanctions
against nations that engage in activities deemed by the United
States to undermine the effectiveness of international environmental
agreements, whether or not the country State is acting illegally.
Pelagic — fishes that live in
the open sea, such as tunas and sharks, that spend most of their
life swimming in the water column between the bottom and the
Per Capita Consumption —
Consumption of edible fishery products in the U.S., divided by the
total population. In calculating annual per capita consumption, the
National Marine Fisheries Service estimates the resident population
of the U.S. in July of each year.
Peritoneum — the membrane lining
a fish's belly cavity.
Pinbones — Fine bones found
along the middle of fillets.
Pink Salmon (Humpy) — a salmon
species that are most frequently used for canning. The name humpy
comes from the large hump that forms on the male's back during
Pinnipeds — marine mammals, of
the order Pinnipedia, including seals, sea lions and walruses.
Plate Freezing — a process
whereby seafood is placed between two hollow metal plates and is
frozen by a refrigerant flowing through the hollow plates.
Typically, the plates compress the seafood to ensure uniform contact
PND — Peeled & Deveined
Pole-and-Line Fishing — a method
of fishing that involves attracting fish to the vessel, using small
bait fish. A pole with a barbless lure is lowered into the water
that is raised when the fish bite, lifting the fish out of the water
and onto the vessel.
Portion — Usually a square or
rectangle, cut from a block of frozen fish. Weights vary from 1-1/2
oz. to about 6 oz. May be plain or breaded, raw or pre-cooked. Fish
portion packs may bear grading and inspection marks. Raw portions
are at least 3/8 inch thick, and contain at least 75% fish. The fish
from which the block is made must be fillets from only one species,
skin on or skinless. Minced fish portion is a term used for portions
manufactured from mechanically separated fish flesh. Labels must,
and menus should, indicate whether fish portions are "minced
fish" or "fillet fish" portions.
Post Harvest Processor(PHP) — A
certified dealer with the capability to apply a validated post
harvest process to reduce the level s of hazards not addressed by
controls in the 2003 NSSP Guide for the control of molluscan
shellfish chapters XI through XIV.
Pots — traps in the form of
cages or baskets with one or more openings or entrances. They can be
made from various materials (such as wood, wicker, metal rods,
etc.). They are usually set at the bottom, with or without bait,
singly or in rows, connected by ropes (buoy-lines) to buoys showing
their position on the surface.
Pound — a storage area for
holding live lobster.
Prawn — a marketing term
sometimes used to refer to large shrimp. It also is used to refer to
freshwater shrimp species.
Precautionary Principle — a new
fisheries management concept that includes taking action to prevent
the over-exploitation of a stock before it actually occurs, allowing
for a margin of error, and the principle that lack of full
scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing
conservation and management measures where there is a threat of
serious or irreversible damage.
Precautionary Reference Points —
acceptable levels of mortality and recruitment for fisheries. Limit
reference points represent the outer limit within which fish stocks
can produce maximum sustainable yield. Target reference points, on
the other hand, are set at some point lower than the limit reference
point and are intended to meet management objectives. Thus, Maximum
Sustainable Yield would no longer be a target (a management
objective) but an outer limit that should not be breached. The
intention is to keep all harvests below MSY and, when the target
reference point is exceeded so that a stock falls below or is at
risk of falling below the limit reference point, automatic
management measures should be initiated to allow the stock to
Precooked — Portion that has
been cooked or partially cooked, so the product requires only
heating or minimal cooking prior to consumption.
Previously Frozen — seafood has
been thawed, "slacked out," or "refreshed".
PTO — Peeled Tail On
PPV — Peeled Pull Veined
PUD — Peeled Undeveined
PUDTO — Peeled UnDeveined Tail - On
Purse Seines — a wall of netting with a gathered, or
"purse," line at the bottom. The net is deployed around
the fish and the purse line enables it to be closed like a purse to
catch the fish. Purse seines may be very large and are sometimes
operated by two boats, although in most cases only one boat is used,
with or without a skiff (a small auxiliary boat). Tuna purse seiners
are large vessels, equipped to handle very large purse seine nets
Rancidity — The oxidation of the
natural oil in the fish, making the fish unpalatable.
Range — the geographical area or
areas inhabited by a species.
Recruitment — the amount of fish
added to a stock each year through reproduction, growth and
migration into the fishing area. Also refers to the number of fish
entering the spawning stock, or the number of fish from a year class
reaching a certain age.
Recruitment Over fishing — a
type of over fishing that results in greatly reduced spawning stock,
a decreased proportion of older fish in the spawning stock, and
repeated years of low recruitment.
Red Salmon — another name for
Red Tide — a reddish
discoloration of coastal surface waters due to concentrations of
certain toxin-producing algae.
Red Tide — A reddish-colored
carpet of algae that appears below the surface of the sea and is
eaten by clams, mussels and oysters. The algae secrete a substance
that can be toxic to humans. Fishing grounds are closed when red
tide occurs, preventing the harvest of any contaminated shellfish.
Reflagging — the practice of
vessels changing their registration with a nation to another nation
to escape harvest controls. This practice can seriously undermine
international conservation efforts. Nations that allow vessels to
reflag under their registry are commonly known as
Refreshed — seafood that has
been frozen then thawed, or "slacked out" for resale.
Sometimes called "previously frozen."
Relative Abundance — an estimate
of actual or absolute abundance, usually stated as some kind of
Repacker(RP) — A person other
than the original certified shucker-packer who repacks shucked
shellfish into other containers. A re-packer also may repack and
ship shellstock. A repacker shall not shuck shellfish.
Reshipper(RS) — A person who
purchases shucked shellfish or shellstock from other certified
shippers and sells the product without repacking or relabeling to
other certified shippers, wholesalers or retailers.
Retort Pouch — a flexible
package made of layered plastic and metallic-colored foil as an
alternative to traditional cans. The layers of a retort pouch may be
clear or opaque. Most are "see-through" on the top with
foil on the bottom, to avoid confusion with vacuum-sealed products.
RHSO — Raw Headless Shell On
Rigor Mortis — a temporary
stiffening and rigidity of muscles following death. Prolonged rigor
mortis helps to maintain fresh-fish quality, because intense
bacterial spoilage does not begin until after rigor mortis, with its
high acid levels, has passed.
Roe — fish eggs.
RPD — Raw Peeled & Deveined
RPTO — Raw Peeled Tail On
Round — refers to whole,
ungutted fish or shrimp that has been peeled but not split or
Round Fish — Fish sold just as
they come from the water. They must be dressed before cooking.
Run — the movement of fish inshore or upstream for
Salad — Crab bricks of
Sablefish (Black Cod) (Anoplopoma
fimbria) — a groundfish harvested in the North Pacific.
Salmon — several species of
anadromous fish found in both the Atlantic and Pacific.
Salmonella — a bacterium found
in water, soil, insects, factory and kitchen surfaces, animal fecal
matter, and raw meats, poultry (including eggs) and seafood. Acute
symptoms of the illness caused by the Salmonella species include
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache and fever.
Proper cooking destroys salmonella bacteria.
Salmonella — A microorganism
causing food poisoning in humans, salmonella is very common and is
found on meat, poultry and rarely, seafood. Normal cooking destroys
Salmonid — belonging to the
family Salmonidae, which includes the salmon, trout, char, and
Salted — the process of mixing
fish with dry, food-grade salt such that the resulting brine drains
Sasgunu Grade — Regular fish
eaten soon after it is caught.
Sashimi — a Japanese dish of raw
fish, shellfish, and mollusks served with soy sauce, wasabi, and
pickled vegetables. Sushi is similar but it is served with vinegared
rice, and may also include nori seaweed, vegetables, and strips of
cooked eggs similar to omelets.
Sashimi Grade — Regular fish
eaten soon after it is caught.
SBT — Southern Bluefin Tuna
Scallops — bivalve mollusks
belonging to the genera Pecten.
Scampi — Scampi is the plural of
"Scampo", which is the Italian name for the Norway
Lobster. It is also known as the Dublin Bay Prawn especially in the
UK while in France it is called langoustine. The fleshy tail of the
Norwegian Lobster is closer in both taste and texture to lobster and
crayfish than prawn or shrimp in the UK. Scampi refers to a dish of
shelled tail meat coated in breadcrumbs or batter deep fried and
often served with chips peas and tartar sauce. In the USA Scampi,
another name for large shrimp usually about 1 oz or larger, is often
the menu name for shrimp. In Italian-American cuisine the term
scampi by itself is also the name of a dish of shrimp served in
garlic butter and dry white wine served either with bread or over
pasta. Sometimes the word scampi is often used to refer to a certain
style of preparation and not just the lobster itself for example,
shrimp scampi is actually a dish made scampi-style in popular
Scrod — designates smaller-size
cod, haddock, pollock or cusk. It is not a species of fish.
Sometimes spelled schrod.
Scombroid Poisoning (also called
Histamine Poisoning) — can occur after ingesting certain fish,
particularly tuna or mahi-mahi, that have spoiled. Initial symptoms
may include a tingling or burning sensation in the mouth, a rash on
the upper body and a drop in blood pressure. Frequently, headaches
and itching of the skin are encountered. The symptoms may progress
to nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea and may require hospitalization,
particularly in the case of elderly or impaired patients.
Scraped Meat — Meat that has
been "hand recovered" from the backbone.
Sea Lice — small crustaceans
(Lepeophtheirus) that attach themselves to salmon and feed on their
flesh, producing unsightly blemishes. Efforts by a fish to rub the
lice off can lead to infections.
Sea Urchin — a round spiny
creature found off the coasts of Europe and America. The only edible
portion is the roe, or coral, usually eaten raw with fresh lemon
Seafood — all marine finfish,
crustaceans, mollusks and other forms of aquatic life (including
squid, sea turtle, jellyfish, sea cucumber, and sea urchin and the
roe of such animals) other than birds or mammals, harvested for
Seaweed — marine members of the
algae phylum. It can be used to make sushi, soups, thicken liquids,
and add extra flavor to salads and other dishes.
Sections — The three walking
legs and one claw on one side of king, snow or Dungeness crab, all
attached at the shoulder.
Seine Nets — very long nets used
to surround fish. They can be operated from the shore (beach seines)
or from a vessel.
Set Net (Gillnet) — Most have a
series of floats at the top, and a series of weights at the bottom
that keep the net upright in the water. Fish are caught as they swim
into the net. The size of the mesh in the set net determines the
size and species of fish caught. Used properly, this method is a
selective fishing method.
Shank fillet — Fillet where the
nugget has been removed.
Shatterpack — A box of frozen
fish fillets separated by interleaved polyethylene sheets. Dropping
the box, "shattering" the pack, can separate fillets.
Shelf Life — the expected amount
of time a seafood product will remain in high-quality condition. In
general, the higher the fat content, the more prone the product is
to spoilage and flavor changes.
Shellfish — All edible species
of oysters, clams, mussels and scallops; either shucked or in the
shell, fresh or frozen, whole or in part. Scallops are to be
excluded when the final product is the shucked adductor muscle. Only
the 1991 ISSC Scallop Committee Report provided a two year period
for incorporating whole and roe-on scallops into the NSSP.
Shellstock Shipper(SS) — A person
who grows harvest, buys or repacks and sells shellstock. They are
not authorized to shuck shellfish nor to repack shucked shellfish. A
shellstock shipper may also ship shucked shellfish.
Shrimp — members of several
related crustacean genera including Peneaus and Crangon. Shrimp have
a thin, segmented shell covering a tapering body, and a large head.
Shrink — natural weight loss of
seafood due to seepage or fluids draining from product, also called
drip or purge. Also used to describe losses because seafood had to
be discarded when it became too old to sell.
Shucker Packer(SP) — Aperson who
shucks and packs shellfish. A shucker-packer may act as a shellstock
shipper or reshipper or may repack shellfish originating from other
Silver Salmon — another name for
Silverbright — chum salmon that
have been harvested at sea rather than in freshwater.
Skiff — a small, powered metal
boat commonly found on purse seining vessels. The seine skiff is
used to assist in the pursing process by initially pulling the net
away from the vessel and back again once the fish are encircled. It
helps keep the vessel and net from becoming entangled.
Skate Wings — the edible
portions of the skate. The flesh, when cooked, separates into little
fingers of meat and has a distinctive rich, gelatinous texture. The
taste is similar to that of scallops.
Skinned — Some species of fish
are skinned rather than dressed, such as catfish and eels.
Skin-on Fillets- Filletss of fish
with the skin left on.
Skin-on Portions- Portions of fish
with the skin left on.
Sknls — Skinless
Slacked Out — refers to frozen
seafood that has been thawed or refreshed.
Smoked — cured by the action of
smoke produced from slowly burning wood or other material, to partly
dry the product and impart a smoky flavor.
Smolt — young fish ready for
life in a saltwater environment.
Snap-and-eats — Crab legs that
have been scored to allow them to be broken easily during eating.
S/O — scale off
Sockeye Salmon (Red Salmon) — a
small Pacific salmon with red flesh.
Sook — a female blue crab.
S/P — shatter pack
Spawning — the release of eggs.
Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) —
the total weight of all sexually mature fish a stock. This quantity
depends on year class abundance, the exploitation pattern, the rate
of growth, fishing and natural mortality rates, the onset of sexual
maturity and environmental conditions.
Splits — Crab legs that have
been split in half length-wise exposing the meat.
spp. — a taxonomic abbreviation
signifying more than one species.
Squid — a cephalopod mollusk of
the families Loligo and Ommastrephes. A slender, soft body with no
bones and ten tentacles characterizes them. Squid is also known as
Steak — a cross-sectional slice
of a fish, usually 1/2 to 2 inches thick and containing a section of
Steak — Slices of dressed fish
smaller than chunks. They yield an edible portion of about 86% to
92%. They are ready for cooking.
Stock Fish — The OECD
Multilingual Dictionary of Fish and Fish Products states stockfish
is gutted, headed, unsplit or split fish such as cod, coalfish,
haddock, and hake dried hard without salt in open air.
Stock (of fish) — defined in the
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act as "a
species, subspecies, geographical grouping, or other category of
fish capable of management as a unit."
STP (sodium tripolyphosphate) —
an additive used on fish and shrimp to retain moisture.
Straddling Stocks — stocks that
occur both within and in an area beyond and adjacent to the economic
or fishing zones of coastal States.
Stuffed Fish — Whole dressed fish
which are stuffed with dressing stuffing before cooking.
Sulfites — additives used to
delay melanosis, or black spot, on raw shrimp.
Surimi Seafood — analog
shellfish products made from surimi that is thawed, blended with
flavorings, stabilizers and colorings and then heat-processed to
make fibrous, flake, chunk and composite molded products, most
commonly imitating crab meat, lobster tails and shrimp.
Surimi — (Japanese for formed fish) is frozen minced fish which
is produced from Skinless fishes such as Alaska Pollock, Hake,
Pacific Blue Whiting, Threadfin Beam and etc. In Southeast Asia, the
overwhelming majority of Surimi Raw Material comes from Threadfin
Beam, Big Eye, Ponyfish, Lizard, Yellow Goatfish and Red Mullet.
Tagging — a system of marking or
attaching a tag to fish so that they can be identified on recapture;
used for the study of fish growth, movement, migration and stock
structure and size.
Tail — the thin, tapered,
tail-end portion of fillets, or the meaty tail section of lobster
Tails — Fish portion that
resembles the tail of a fish, boneless, usually breaded or
batter-dipped, raw or precooked. The term is also applied to shrimp
and spiny lobster with reference to their meaty tail sections.
Target Catch — that portion of
the catch which is retained on board and which was the focus of a
directed fishery (i.e., it was being targeted).
Tempura Batter — A light
Territorial Sea — the area of
water adjacent to the coast over which the coastal nation is
permitted by international law to exercise sovereign jurisdiction.
The legal limit on the breadth of the territorial sea has varied at
different periods but is now no more than 12 miles.
Threatened Species — species not
presently in danger of extinction but likely to become so in the
Tickler — a chain that is
dragged along the bottom of the ocean in front of a net to scare
fish up from the bottom and into the net.
Tilapia (Tilapia spp.) —
freshwater fish that are commonly grown on farms.
chamaeleonticeps) — found in deep waters along the east coast of
the U.S. and as far south as Venezuela.
Tomalley — the green-colored
liver of an American lobster (Homerus americanus), found in its head
Ton — In international seafood
sales, usually refers to a metric ton (2,205 lbs.).
Total Allowable Catch (TAC) —
the total regulated catch from a stock in a given time period,
usually a year.
Trammel Nets — similar to
gillnets, except they have three walls of netting instead of one.
The two outer walls are of a larger mesh size than the loosely hung
inner netting panel, in which the fish are caught.
Transboundary Stock — any fish
stock that crosses a jurisdictional boundary, either between two
coastal nations, or between a coastal nation's Exclusive Economic
Zone and the High Seas.
Traps — devices used to catch
seafood. Most are box-like cages set on the seabed with a haul-in
line and surface float or buoy to mark their position. Some are
open-topped netting areas set at the surface.
Trawls — towed nets consisting
of a cone-shaped body, closed by a bag or codend and extended at the
opening by wings. Strong steel cables (called warps) connect the net
to the trawler. They can be towed by one or two vessels and may be
used on the bottom (bottom trawls) or in mid-water (mid-water or
pelagic trawls). In some fisheries, vessels may tow two (or even
four) trawls at the same time.
Tray Pack — a packaging form in
which seafood is prepackaged on a shallow, clear or foam-plastic
tray, over wrapped with transparent, plastic film. An absorbent
paper pad, covered with plastic to avoid sticking to the product, is
sandwiched between the product and the tray to absorb moisture.
Trimmed — fish that have had
their fins and tail removed.
Triploid — a
genetically-developed sterile animal.
Tripolyphosphate (also, Sodium
Tripoly, STP) — A sodium-based additive used to control moisture
loss. Often applied at sea to fresh-shucked scallops. Seafood with
tripoly added is referred to as "wet," "dipped,"
Trolling — a method of fishing
using lines with baited hooks that are dragged behind the vessel.
Several lines (up to 20) are usually towed at the same time, with
the help of outriggers. Weights can be attached to the lines if the
target fish is found at a greater depth.
Turbot — a flat, diamond-shaped
bottom fish harvested in the North Sea and Atlantic.
Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs) — panels of mesh webbing or
metal grids inserted into funnel-shaped shrimp trawl nets. As the
nets are towed, shrimp and other small animals pass through the TED
and into the codend of the net, the narrow bag at the end of the
funnel where the catch is collected. Sea turtles, sharks, and fish
too large to get through the panel are deflected out an escape
Upwelling Zones — areas of the oceans where deep-ocean
waters rich in nutrients rise to the surface. Although these natural
upwelling zones amount to only about 0.1% of the surface of the
oceans, the are very fertile, producing 44% of all the fish humans
use for food.
V-cut — made when removing
pinbones from a fish by cutting along both sides of the pinbone
strip, leaving most of the nape.
Vacum Packed Portion- Portions
that have been vacuumed packed often individually.
Vein — the intestinal tract of a
shrimp along the dorsal side of the tail. Lobster tails also have
Vibrio parahaemolyticus — a
bacterium found in estuarine and marine waters and in certain fish
and shellfish. It can cause gastroenteritis resulting in diarrhea,
abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache, fever, and chills.
Vibrio vulnificus — a bacterium
found in ocean waters, sediment, plankton, and shellfish. Can be
contracted through swimming with open wounds or by eating raw
shellfish. Usually causes gastroenteritis in healthy individuals but
can lead to septicemia in those with compromised immune systems.
Virtual Population Analysis (or
Cohort Analysis) — used by fishery scientists to estimate the size
of fish stocks.
Viscera — internal organs. Eviscerated means gutted.
Wheels — Straight cuts across a
Whole Fish — Fish sold just as they come from the water,
also called landed or round weight. They must be dressed before
W/R — Whole round